3 URBAN DESIGN, LANDSCAPE AND CULTURAL HERITAGE
3.1 Urban Design
The urban design section covers the review of the existing urban context surrounding the Study Area; urban design review of previous studies, including Comprehensive Feasibility Study for The Revised Scheme of Southeast Kowloon Development (SEKD CFS) and Further Urban Design Study for Planning and Development of Southeast Kowloon (FUDS); and new general urban design concepts pertaining to the no reclamation scenario.
3.1.1 Existing Urban Design Context
3.1.1.1 By virtue of its central location, the large scale of its mostly undeveloped area, and its extensive waterfront, Kai Tak Development (KTD) presents an extraordinary opportunity to develop a new urban design which will serve as a focus for city life and a catalyst for the reconnection and revitalization of adjacent areas.
3.1.1.2 Major contextual issues have been identified that frame the KTD within the wider city (Figures 3.1.1, 3.1.2):
FigureFigure 3.1.1
FigureFigure 3.1.2
Relationship with Natural Environment
3.1.1.3 KTD has a particularly strong relationship with the natural environment through its waterfront location and its mountain views.   Kai Tak Nullah and other drainage reserves within the site carry water from the mountains to the harbour.
3.1.1.4 By virtue of its location on the north end of Kowloon Bay and the extension of the runway into the Harbour, this configuration affords the opportunity to enjoy an unparalleled and exhilarating 360-degree panoramic view of the Harbour, the surrounding districts, and the mountains beyond.  In turn, KTD is highly visible from Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon highlands such as Ho Man Tin and Hammer Hill.
3.1.1.5 Significant natural features visible to the east include Lei Yue Mun and the Eastern Gap.  To the south and west across Victoria Harbour is the ridgeline of Hong Kong Island , including Victoria Peak , Mount Butler and Mount Parker .  To the north and east are the Kowloon highlands, including the prominent natural features of Lion Rock to the northwest and Fei Ngo Shan to the northeast. 
3.1.1.6 Under the no-reclamation scenario, the site has extensive frontage on Kowloon Bay and Kai Tak Approach Channel.  This presents the opportunity to create the longest contiguous waterfront on Victoria Harbour comprising two waterfront areas that are different in character.  This would partially fulfill the objective to create a people-friendly environment with a strong sense of place in relation to the Harbour.
Character and Built Form of Adjacent Areas
3.1.1.7 KTD borders 2 main areas to the East: Cha Kwo Ling and Kwun Tong South, with Yao Tong to the further south-east.  Except for Laguna City , much of Cha Kwo Ling is still undeveloped, with cargo working area and other government laying on the waterfront.  Part of Cha Kwo Ling near the waterfront is zoned for residential development (“R(A)4”) on the current OZP.
3.1.1.8 Kwun Tong also has a cargo-handling waterfront.  The existing development in Kwun Tong is primarily industrial buildings.  Building heights generally range from 10 to 20 storeys (30-50mPD).  With the gradual regeneration of the district, recent years have seen the construction of high office and commercial buildings up to 30 storeys or above.  One notable example is the Millennium City , which is as high as 120mPD.
3.1.1.9 Northeast of KTD lies Kowloon Bay , a newer industrial area with residential estates in the vicinity.  Similar to the industrial area in Kwun Tong, the planning intention for Kowloon Bay is to phase out the existing polluting and hazardous industrial uses and to promote a mix of information technology and telecommunications industries, non-polluting industries, office and other commercial uses (called business use in general).  Building heights generally range from 10-20 storeys (30-50mPD).  Some new buildings have been constructed in recent years, which went up to 70mPD or above.
3.1.1.10 To the north-west of the site are Kowloon City and San Po Kong.  Both of these adjacent neighbourhoods present opportunities to connect to the urban fabric of KTD.  Kowloon City is an historical site.  The existing development is low-rise residential with building heights under 10 storeys (20-40mPD), which is laid out in a distinctively small grid system. 
3.1.1.11 To the north, San Po Kong is dominated by industrial and residential land use.  Again, this adjacent industrial land use has been planned to phase in non-polluting industries.  The existing buildings are generally 10-20 storeys (30-50mPD) with some newer buildings of 30 storeys or above.  Example is the San Po Kong Plaza which reaches 108mPD.
3.1.1.12 To the west of KTD lies Ma Tau Kok, To Kwa Wan and Hung Hom.  Ma Tau Kok and To Kwa Wan are primarily residential and industrial, with industry dominated by light manufacturing.  It consists of a mix of old buildings under 10 storeys (30mPD) laid in small grid system and some newer buildings of 10-20 storeys (30-50 mPD).  Derelict industrial areas are undergoing private redevelopment including high-rise residential developments under construction such as the 50 storey-Sky Towers
3.1.1.13  Hung Hom is dominated by large residential estates of 15 to 20 storeys (50mPD).  New buildings have nevertheless been springing up along the waterfront.  Examples include Laguna Verde which is up to 35 storeys and Harbourfront Landmark which is up to 57 storeys.
3.1.1.14 It can be seen that many of the surrounding districts are traditional ones undergoing regeneration.  Their grid pattern is generally smaller than what is found in some new towns.  To create an intimate relationship with its surrounding, opportunities exist to extend the existing urban fabric into the KTD.  
3.1.1.15 In terms of building height, it is dominated by 10-20 storey buildings though newer and taller buildings have been springing up in recent years.  In order to protect views to the ridgelines from popular vantage points, the Study of Urban Design Guidelines for Hong Kong (2003) has proposed to instigate height control in the statutory plans.  The community, as revealed from the various public consultations of the study, is generally in support of the initiative.  In March 2004, Town Planning Board published the Town Planning Board Guidelines for Interim Building Height Control in Kowloon Bay and Kwun Tong Business Areas.
3.1.1.16 Four height band restrictions are proposed for the Kowloon Bay Business Area (100mPD, 120mPD, 140mPD and 170mPD), for preserving views to the ridgelines, creating a discernible townscape with a high-rise node at the southern part and providing a stepped backdrop in the surrounding areas to accentuate this node.  Four height band restrictions are also proposed for Kwun Tong Business Area (100mPD, 130mPD, 160mPD and 200mPD), for preserving views to the ridgelines and reinforcing the discernible district centre character at the main activity node of the Kwun Tong MTR Station and Town Centre.  These building height control proposals are open for public consultation prior to their incorporation into the OZPs.
3.1.1.17 In order to create a harmonious relationship with the vicinity, the future urban design profile of KTD should take the existing skyline and the building height control proposals into due consideration.
Connectivity
3.1.1.18 The northern edge of the Study Area is bounded by Prince Edward Road East , a major thoroughfare that leads from Mongkok to Kowloon Bay and also acts as a barrier for accessing the Study Area from the north.  The eastern edge of the site is bounded by Kwun Tong Bypass, a major arterial road that leads from Tseung Kwan O to Kwun Tong and acts as a barrier for accessing the Study Area from the east.
3.1.1.19 The existing Airport Tunnel allows quick connection between Kowloon Bay and To Kwa Wan; however, the surface area above the tunnel becomes no build zone and hinders development effort.  The planned T2 road is another bypass that will allow connection between Tseung Kwan O and central Kowloon area.
3.1.1.20 Located at the centre of Kowloon East, the Study Area has high potential to act as the future gateway to its surrounding districts, including To Kwa Wan, Kowloon City , San Po Kong, Kowloon Bay and Kwun Tong.  On one hand, the anchor facilities in Kai Tak will serve the community of these surrounding districts.  On the other hand, people from the around/outside the territory could come to enjoy themselves in Kai Tak, from where they may enter the surrounding districts easily and comfortably.  This gateway concept will require the improvements of multi-modal connectivity of the Study Area and its surrounding.
3.1.1.21 In terms of vehicular accessibility, potential access points would be designated from the surrounding districts: To Kwa Wan, Kowloon City , San Po Kong, Kowloon Bay and Kwun Tong.
3.1.1.22 Choi Hung, Kowloon Bay , and Ngau Tau Kok are the three nearest existing MTR stations to the eastern side of the Study Area.  At the moment, there is no MTR on the western side; however, the planned Shatin to Central Link will pass through the Study Area and eventually connects with the existing railway system.  Rail-based feeder services may also be considered to extend to the southern part (i.e. runway) of Kai Tak.  Opportunities should also be explored to improve connectivity of the runway with the MTR stations in the hinterland.
3.1.1.23 The Study Area is at present rather isolated in terms of pedestrian accessibility.  As the multi-lane Prince Edward Road East acts as a barrier for pedestrian from Kowloon City and San Po Kong to the site, the multi-level of the Kwun Tong Bypass and Eastern Road hinder pedestrian connection between the site and Kowloon Bay .  With the future KTD, opportunities should be explored to improve its connectivity with its vicinity.
3.1.1.24 Along the waterfront opportunities exist to create a continuous promenade, though existing buildings and uses such as pubic cargo working area impose constraint on its implementation.  Linkages to existing pedestrian and open space areas such as Hok Sham Park can establish the basis for a green community and should be further explored in the present Study.
Identity
3.1.1.25 Along with the Hong Kong Exhibition and Convention Center in Wanchai and the planned Cultural District of West Kowloon, KTD is one of the three largest opportunities for special waterfront areas on Victoria Harbour .  The site has a prominent harbourfront location and there exists opportunities for a diverse mixed-use programme including significant anchors such as the proposed stadium, heliport, and cruise terminal. 
3.1.1.26 Although KTD is impacted by the proximity of the older industrial areas of San Po Kong, Kowloon Bay and Kwun Tong, the site retains a separate and distinctive identity as a prominent site within the Harbour environment and as a former urban airport.  Such distinctive identity should be captured in establishing the urban design strategy for the area.
3.1.1.27 Several other key urban design issues that impact the identity of KTD have been identified.  These include:
· Development of the urban design framework of streets, building parcels, and public open space;
· Provision of urban design guidelines for building height and massing with particular attention to protecting and enhancing important view corridors to, from, and across the site from surrounding communities and Hong Kong Island;
· Organization of the urban design framework and building height and massing to maintain and enhance good cross-site ventilation through orientation to prevailing winds;
· Interface and connectivity with adjacent urban communities;
· Linkage with public transport terminals
·  Possible linkage with public promenade / walkways from Hung Hom and Kwun Tong waterfronts;
·  Mitigation of undesirable views and related impacts of such facilities as refuse transfer stations and public filling barging point;  and
· Urban design integration with adjacent water bodies, new water features, and suitable water-based activities.
3.1.2 Review of Urban Design Initiatives Proposed in Previous Studies
SEKD CFS
3.1.2.1 The SEKD CFS addressed integration with the urban context, the site’s relationship with the harbour, the proposed urban framework, including open space considerations, overall pedestrian network, and the siting, positioning, form, and height of buildings, and the specific design of three District Plans.
3.1.2.2 Key urban design principles of SEKD CFS are as follows:
a. To break down scale of development to create areas of distinct identity;
b. To create safe and easily accessible pedestrian network at a human scale;
c. To promote permeability at all levels as well as vitality and variety;
d. To ensure a transition in building scale and stepped building height around open spaces and from the Harbor to the hinterland;
e. To preserve views of 20% of the ridgeline when viewed from Quarry Bay Park ;
f. To frame and delineate open spaces by appropriate building walls;
g. To mark the Harbor front and establish appropriate landmarks.
3.1.2.3 The new development should reinforce and consolidate the existing and committed urban pattern, and establish new districts that relate spatially to the existing areas and have their own identity.  The District Urban Framework identified three districts, the Runway, NAKTA, and Hoi Sham.
NAKTA (East and West)
3.1.2.4 District description
NAKTA was perceived as two neighborhoods within one district, with the Stadium Plaza acting as a central fulcrum.  It is defined by Prince Edward Road East , Sung Wong Toi Road , the Kwun Tong Bypass, and the future Central Kowloon Route .
3.1.2.5 Urban design approach
It was broadly envisaged that NAKTA West would be developed as a “mixed use urban quarter” which would have a quieter character while also embodying a “gateway” quality in relation to the wider area.
3.1.2.6 Open Space
Proposed open spaces included Kai Tak Green, Stadium Plaza , Kai Tak Boulevard and Terrace Square , and Song Wong Toi Garden .
3.1.2.7 Building Height
The buildings follow a general height provision that establishes lower building heights (around 120mPD to 140mPD) around major open spaces such as the Kai Tak Green, Kai Tak Boulevard , and Stadium Plaza .  And buildings can step higher as they are further away from the open spaces with the maximum height of 180mPD.
3.1.2.8 Landmarks
The major landmark of NAKTA would be the stadium, which would also be the landmark for the entire Study Area.  Other landmarks are buildings as well as gateway structures located at the entrance of the neighbourhoods and major open space.
3.1.2.9  Vistas/View Corridors
The main view corridor would be one along Kai Tak Boulevard , which allow a view of the Lion Rock from the Metro Park .  Other view corridors are established from Kai Tak Boulevard to Stadium, along waterfront promenade and along road towards Kai Tak Green.
3.1.2.10 Pedestrian Network
The pedestrian network is largely at grade paths along streets and footpaths with the exception at the connecting point between NAKTA East and West, and the stadium, where series of elevated footbridges will be utilized.
The Runway
3.1.2.11 District description
The Runway would be a linear harbourfront district reflecting the alignment of the old Kai Tak runway.
3.1.2.12 Urban design approach
In contrast with other districts, the chief characteristics would be its rectilinear grid related to the geometry of the adjoining Kowloon Bay district.  Long distance vistas relate to HK island and the mountain ridgelines to the north.  The district character was proposed to be residential with a strong pedestrian scale, particularly associated with the proposed Grand Boulevard and the pedestrianized waterfront.
3.1.2.13 Open Space
Proposed open spaces were Runway Promenade, Promenade Garden , Runway Square , The Piazza, Cruise Terrace, Kai Tai Point Garden , Kowloon Bay Plaza , The Crescent, The Grand Boulevard, and The Avenue.
3.1.2.14 Building Height
Building height generally steps up inland from the Harbour front.  Buildings are controlled at 60mPD along the promenade and can increase to 140mPD as they step back away from the waterfront.  Around major open space such as Runway square, Runway Garden , and the piazza, buildings are controlled at the height of 45mPD.
3.1.2.15 Landmarks
Principle landmarks on the runway include a major hotel, cruise terminal, aviation museum, and various gateway structures at the entrances to important open spaces.
3.1.2.16 Vistas/View Corridors
The main view corridor would be one along the promenade towards Lei Yue Mun.
3.1.2.17 Pedestrian Network
The pedestrian network is largely at grade paths along streets and footpaths with the exception at the connecting point between runway and Ngau Tau Kok, and between promenade and cruise terminal, which series of elevated footbridges will be utilized.
Hoi Sham
3.1.2.18 District description
The Hoi Sham Area under the SEKD CFS lies to the west of the NAKTA and Runway Areas.  Under the no-reclamation scenario, the proposed Hoi Sham District is significantly reduced to the existing waterfront parcels extending from Hoi Sham Park north to the runway.
3.1.2.19 Urban design approach
This was intended to take the form of a predominantly residential quarter related to a marine frontage and with a commercial centre located directly above a transport interchange.
3.1.2.20 Open Space
The proposed open spaces included Harbour Side Walk, Metro Park , Hoi Sham Park and Marina Garden.
3.1.2.21 Building Height
The stepped building height principle is adopted for both the buildings fronting onto the harbour (from 55mPD to 110mPD) and the Metro Park (from 85mPD to 205mPD.)
3.1.2.22 Landmarks
The important landmark within Hoi Sham would be the 200m plus landmark office tower that also marks the heart of the town center.  Other landmarks are buildings and gateway structures located at the transition between Harbour side walkway and Metro Park , and at entrances to major open spaces.
3.1.2.23 Vistas/View Corridors
The main view corridor would be one along existing shoreline towards the stadium.  Another one would be from a 8m high landscape deck overlooking Hoi Sham Park and the Harbour.
3.1.2.24 Pedestrian Network
The pedestrian network is at grade along streets and footpaths.  The system is supplemented by an elevated system around the commercial development.
3.1.2.25 During the course of the study, SEKD CFS had assessed the visual impact that the redevelopment would have on the surrounding areas and determined the immediate adjacent districts would be affected the most.  Hence a series of measures were devised and incorporated into layout plan:
a. Creation of view corridors, links, and visual permeability;
b. Retention of Kowloon Hills ridgeline;
c. Integration with surrounding areas;
d. Consideration of character of Kowloon Bay ;
e. Retention Kai Tak Runway;
f. Consideration of building massing and height to reduce canyon effect and provide interest and variety to building frontage;
g. Formation of open space framework, linkages and integration with surrounding open space;
h. Minimization of roads above ground or at grade with maximization of depressed or tunnel roads;
i. Provision of compensatory planting;
j. Consideration of design of earthworks
Further Urban Design Study for Planning and Development of SEKD (FUDS)
3.1.2.26 The Further Urban Design Study for Planning and Development of SEKD (FUDS) provides a more in-depth design of the Study Area based on the approved plan of SEKD CFS.  Key urban design principles of FUDS are:
a. Character – to promote character in terms of cityscape by responding to and reinforcing locally distinctive patterns of development and culture;
b. Continuity and definition – to promote continuity of street frontages and the enclosure of space by development which clearly defines private and public areas;
c. Quality of public realm – to promote public spaces and routes that are attractive, safe, robust in terms of use, and work effectively for all;
d. Ease of movement – to promote accessibility and local permeability by making places that connect with each other and are easy to move through, putting people before traffic and integrating land uses and public transport;
e. Legibility - to promote legibility through development that provides recognizable routes, intersections and landmarks to help people find their way around;
f. Adaptability – to promote adaptability through development that can respond to changing social, technological and economic conditions;
g. Diversity – to promote diversity and choice through mix of compatible developments and uses that work together to create viable places that respond to local needs;
h. Richness – to promote informal urban interventions and a sense of detail at the pedestrian scale that heighten community perceptions and associations;
i. Identity – to promote identifiable urban ‘quarters’ that exhibit a distinctive image; and
j. Durability – to promote the creation of lasting structures as part of sustainable development initiatives.
3.1.2.27 The FUD encompassed the design principles contained in the SEKD CFS.  Those design principles are to guide the Study Area to become a well-planned, special district that has a unique development character with a human-scale open space system.  While the proposed urban framework must be revised under the no-reclamation scenario, these urban design principles remain much valid and relevant.
3.1.2.28 SEKD CFS and the FUD proposed similar urban frameworks.  An exception is the latter study’s proposal to incorporate a more extensive programme of public uses in the runway area adjacent to the existing ferry terminal in order to create a bigger tourism node as well as the development of a series of mixed-use towers along the runway waterfront to further break up the long, monotonous edge of the runway.
3.1.2.29 Without the reclamation the Study Area would decrease by one-third.  Affected urban design elements include:
· Metro Park , an open space node building on reclaimed land that serves as a connector between Hung Hom and the site.
· The Kai Tak Approach Channel may remain as an open channel. 
· There may be more constraints in establishing a continuous promenade from Hung Hom to Kwun Tong.
3.1.2.30 On one hand developable land has decreased but on the other hand the site has gained new water amenity and waterfront opportunity, the environmental issues involved nevertheless are complicated(Readers should refer to Chapter 4 for discussion).  On one hand leaving Kai Tak Approach Channel open may limit accessibility to the runway and limit design flexibility.  On the other hand, it will also open up further opportunity to integrate water into the overall design and to create unique design.  All these opportunities and constraints should be taken into due consideration in the future planning of the area.
Design and Construction Consultancy on SEKD Infrastructure at NAKTA (NAKTA Study)
3.1.2.31 The North Apron Area would be the most integrated part of the SEKD with the surroundings; however, the existing and planned infrastructure in that area creates considerable constraints for redevelopment.  The Nullah, the airport tunnel, the planned KCRC line, and the future T2 alignment affect the flexibility of the site for redevelopment (Fig. 3.1.2).  The NAKTA Study represented the effort to address these technical constraints at the detailed design stage.  In particular it pointed out the potential visual impacts of noise barriers and the difficulty for mitigation.  These experiences provide valuable insights for the present Study.  Where possible, proactive and balanced environmental planning approach, including reduction in development density, would be adopted to minimize the need of reactive environmental impact mitigation measures.  Where mitigations are necessary, such practical measures as follows will be considered (ProPECC PN4/93):
a. Screening by noise tolerant buildings – carparks or commercial buildings
b. Setback of buildings – achieve better result in combination with other measures
c. Decking over – suitable for development over air right of railway or highway
d. Extended podium – similar effect as decking over
e. Building orientation – achieve noise mitigation by arranging noise sensitive areas away from the source
f. Provision of acoustic insulation to affected noise receivers – insulating the façade of the building is considered drastic measure that usually applicable to aircraft noise scenario
Stage II, Study on Review of Metroplan and the Related Kowloon Density Study (2003)
3.1.2.32 The Urban Design and Landscape Guidelines recommended under the study were intended to promote public awareness of design considerations and provide a broad framework for urban design assessment. The guidelines are mainly derived from the proposals of the Study on Urban Design Guidelines for Hong Kong and the proposed new section on “Planning for a Greener City ” in Chapter 4 of the HKPSG. They relate to five main topics:
a. District Identity – to enhance district identity by building on individual local history and character, and utilizing as far as possible any cultural heritage buildings or other features.
b. Pedestrian Environment and Streetscape – provision of convenient pedestrian facilities and an attractive street environment enable people to enjoy more and take better advantage of their city.
c. Waterfront Development – careful attention to urban design at the harbour waterfront is particular important
d. Mitigation of Traffic Air and Noise Pollution – to deal with traffic air and noise pollution by a range of policy measures to control emissions at source by encouraging the adoption of more environmentally friendly technology and influencing the demand for vehicular travel
e. Landscape Conservation and Enhancement – general guidelines on the conservation of natural landscapes and habitats are provided in Chapter 10 of the Hong Kong Planning Standards and Guidelines (HKPSG).  Chapter 4 of the HKPSG also provides a section on “Planning Guidelines on Greening” for application of greening principles at all stages of planning and development
3.1.2.33 The aim of the Building Height Guidelines under the study was to emphasize the importance of building height considerations and provide a broad framework for deriving more detailed operational criteria for application to development proposals. The guidelines, which were mainly derived from the proposals of the Study on Urban Design Guidelines for Hong Kong , relate to three main topics:
a. Protection of Landscape Setting
· Development should not be permitted to obstruct visibility of the upper 20% of elevation up to the ridgelines of the Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Hills when viewed from the various vantage points
b. Height Profile for Areas around Victoria Harbour
· Building height should be stepped down from the maxima achievable in the hinterland areas to a lower height band on sites facing the shore.  Individual tall landmark buildings may be appropriate at key locations
c. Height Profile for Inner Areas of Hong Kong and Kowloon
· preserve low density areas to enhance diversity in the urban core and introduce interesting landscape and built forms where appropriate; in particular, maintain Special Control Areas aimed at maintaining the character of residential areas and preserving public views.
· protect existing view corridors to ridgelines and provide visual access to the countryside.
· provide relief and diversity in height and massing of developments in different localities.
Planning Study on the Harbour and its Waterfront Areas
3.1.2.34 The following urban design and landscape principles were proposed under the Study:
a. Alternate activity clusters and peaceful areas
b. Quality design along the waterfront
c. Step down building height to Harbour shore
d. Emphasize key locations with landmark buildings/features
e. Integrate or connect historic buildings with waterfront
f. create strong visual links to waterfront from hinterland activity centres
g. Maximize continuity of waterfront promenade
h. Create focal open spaces for lively outdoor activities and as viewpoints at intervals along waterfront
i. provide direct access to waterfront from mass public transport and activity centres
Kai Tak Outline Zoning Plans (OZPs)
3.1.2.35 The urban design concepts adopted in the current Kai Tak (North) OZP No. S/K19/3 and Kai Tak (South) OZP are:
a. Building Height – to establish a transition from a lower urban form at the edges of the Harbour and the surrounding area of the major open spaces building up in scale to the hinterland.
b. Gateway and Foci – major landmarks and the Metropolitan Park as main gateway and other gateways along the harbour front promenade are identified.
c. View Corridors – are established to ensure legibility and orientation within the development, maximize views from within the developments and to provide breezeways.
d. Enhanced Streetscapes – special building designs are proposed to strengthen the streetscape along major open space, harbour front promenade and pedestrianised streets.
3.1.2.36 Summary
In conclusion, many of the urban design principles in the above studies and plans remain valuable for the present Study.  With the renewed design effort in the present Study, we should take advantage of the unique contextual condition of the site to create a showpiece of new development area for Hong Kong .  The future urban framework should embody a clear design intent and hierarchy, and should also pay particular attention to integrate with the larger urban fabric.
3.1.3 General Urban Design Concept
3.1.3.1 The unique characteristics of KTD offer it diverse opportunities – to develop into a centre for community-based recreation, a new residential/business environment for Hong Kong , and/or a focus for international tourism with a heritage aviation theme. 
3.1.3.2 Figures 3.1.3 and 3.1.4 illustrate a possible urban design framework for the KTD, with variation in the location of the stadium and the metro park.  In terms of land uses, focal points of the recreation centre could be the stadium and possibly the water-based activities centre on Kai Tak Channel.  The new business environment may be centered in the north apron area of the site with a significant open space network to link it to new harbourside residential neighbourhoods and entertainment districts located on the former runways and adjacent lands.  International tourism with a transportation theme to celebrate the historic land use and cultural heritage of the site may also be explored. 
3.1.3.3 This approach might be expanded to link with adjacent historic areas in the vicinity (including Sung Wan Toi and Kowloon Walled City ) in order to create an attractive image as a heritage area.  The historic airport layout, in particular the main runway, may be considered in the layout of KTD. 
3.1.3.4 In order to invest the site with a dynamic identity aimed at both tourists and Hong Kong residents, the transportation theme may be developed to incorporate the cruise terminal, water taxi, ferry, monorail, and other infrastructure that facilitate access to the site and circulation between areas within and adjacent to the site.  To link all areas of the site and facilitate movement of residents, workers and tourists, a monorail system may enhance the transportation theme and serve as a visible and entertaining mode of convenient circulation. 
3.1.3.5 Other urban design elements are discussed as follows:
3.1.3.6 Waterfront and Kai Tak Approach Channel
The linearity of the runway may be accentuated to reflect its historic significance by designated it as a special zone which its development character would be different from other parts of the site.  The linearity of the runway could also act as a time line marker for Hong Kong harbour development.
Under the no-reclamation scenario, the Kai Tak Approach Channel would remain open.  It has potential to become a major water amenity for leisure and water-based recreation for the KTD and form the inner waterfront between runway and hinterland (South Apron).  Inner and outer waterfronts of KTD would create a unique urban image of a double waterfront area for the Harbour, with a more activities-oriented inner waterfront and a more scenic and monumental outer waterfront.  The odour, water and sediment quality problems at these water bodies however remain to be addressed.  Substantial remediation cost and much engineering uncertainties may be involved.  Readers should refer to Chapter 4 for more details on the environmental issues.
Keeping the open channel would also ensure the preservation of view corridor towards the Eastern Gap, Fei Ngo Shan, and Lion Rock; and allow the North Apron Area to have a stronger relationship with the waterfront.  It would also help preserve the unique historical image of the former runway, thus preserving the innate character and charm of the KTD.
On the other hand, reclaiming the channel would provide more developable land and create a more integrated district framework and more flexible parcels within the Study Area.  There is also enhanced opportunity to improve the connectivity of the runway, South Apron and the adjacent district.  The reclaimed channel can also be an opportunity for open space for leisure and recreation.  However, the risk associated with biogas accumulation may pose constraint to the development timing of any underground construction on the reclaimed channel.
3.1.3.7 Connection / Access
While the runway waterfront may be a special destination enclave, the North Apron Area may be a more integrated neighborhood that is connected to the surrounding districts.  Major access points should be explored at the junction of Ma Tau Wai, Kowloon City , and Kowloon Bay .  Besides the connection to other urban fabrics, a continuous open space network would be created within the site that connects to the surrounding green system.  While the Central Kowloon Route (CKR) and Road T2 would present a design constraint to KTD, particularly since the CKR portal would likely be located at the pivotal location between the runway and the North Apron Area, it is recommended that open space and landscaping should be provided to buffer the roadways and portal.
3.1.3.8 View Corridor
The idea of the view corridors towards Lei Yue Mun, Lion Rock, Fei Ngo Shan, Mount Parker would be one of the main design considerations, though it may not be an organizing element to avoid creating lines of arbitrary angles in the site and confusion within the larger urban fabric.
3.1.3.9 Development Massing
The Kai Tak development, in its unique location and status, should have an urban form that is different from the waterfront development in other areas of Hong Kong .  For the North Apron and South Apron waterfront, one idea is to create a series of district neighborhoods that stress the concept of human scaled connection and permeability with surrounding context.  Capturing the unique feature of the runway which extends well into Victoria Harbour and will probably be surrounded by water on most sides, there is opportunity to design a series of special dramatic architectural pieces there.
3.1.3.10 Skyline / Rooftop Garden
Potential landmark features above the bridge(s) across the Kai Tak Approach Channel may create a unique character for the site.  Roof top gardens would be another opportunity to help create an urban oasis that utilizes ecological design concepts.
3.1.3.11 Building Height
The KTD building height profile is proposed to be driven by the overall urban design strategy.  Special attention would be paid to the following:
· Stepped height principle to create a “layered” façade as viewed from Victoria Harbour
· Preservation of view corridors
· Creation of areas of distinct character
Creation of landmarks at activity nodes
· Preservation of views to ridgelines/characteristic mountain backdrop
· Respect to the neighbourhood character
· Provision of relief and diversity in development heights in different localities.
3.2 Landscape
This section presents a review of the existing landscape context, reviews the landscape initiatives proposed under the previous studies and describes the key elements of the preliminary landscape and open space concept given the no – reclamation scenario which forms the basis of this  study.  The previous studies reviewed include the SEKD CFS and Design and Construction Consultancy on SEKD Infrastructure at NAKTA (NAKTA Study) although it is primarily based on the findings of FUDS which provides a comprehensive review and analysis of the previous studies.
3.2.1 Existing Landscape Context
3.2.1.1 In the preparation of landscape proposals for the former Kai Tai airport site, it is important to have an understanding of its broader landscape and topographical setting. The former airport is located on the northern and eastern sides of Kowloon Bay , to the east of the Kowloon peninsula. The urban area to the north and east slopes gently uphill to the foot of the steep slopes which enclose the urban area. South of Kowloon Peak, the Tai Sheung Tok ridge line contains views to the east.  The open ridgelines create a dramatic green backdrop to the urban districts of Kowloon .  Within the low-lying urban areas, there are a number of steep sided outcrops including Lok Fu Park, Ho Man Tin, Hammer Hill , Jordan Valley, the Chinese Christian Cemetery .  These high spots with their associated greenery provide relief to the urban fabric and are important vantage points overlooking the development site.
Landscape Resources 
3.2.1.2 The site comprises largely reclaimed land and so there are no natural soils or watercourses.  The northern part of the site is crossed by a major artificial open drainage channel, Kai Tak Nullah.  The edge of the reclamation is linear responding to the form of the original runway, the southern end forms a premonitory into Victoria Harbour , acting as a breakwater for Kwun Tong typhoon shelter.  The main features of the former airport include the extensive concrete apron and runways, areas of grass and former terminal and general airport administration buildings.  The runway is currently being used as storage for construction material for former Anderson Road Quarry development. The major road alignments in part on viaduct around the northern and eastern peripheries of the site act to segregate it from the surrounding urban districts and their discontinuous framework of remnant landscapes and open space networks.
3.2.1.3 The urban districts immediately adjacent to the site boundary are areas of mixed-use development with an emphasis on industrial activities.  Generally the long established industrial areas are high density developments, with a regular street pattern and scarce landscape resources in the form of amenity tree planting or public open space.   Hoi Sham Park on the To Kwa Wan waterfront is an example.  With the recent relaxation of height restrictions along the flight path after airport relocation, together with an emphasis on redevelopment for housing, new high-rise residential developments punctuate the suppressed rooflines that still predominate. 
3.2.1.4 The urban districts to the north of the site and east of Kwun Tong Road are dominated by residential estates, with associated schools, recreation grounds and commercial centres.  The form and layout of these areas is dependant upon their age, whether they are public or private, and to a limited extent their situation in relation to local topography.  The residential districts are typically of lower density than the industrial areas and tend to be ‘greener’; street trees are common, together with tree groups and amenity planting associated with the buildings, and in public parks and recreation grounds.  The most extensive parks are to the north-west of the site.  
3.2.1.5 The type and extent of landscape resources present in the area forming the landscape context for the site are important determinants of the landscape character.  The protection and enhancement of these features is important to the successful integration of the proposals into the landscape of the Study Area.   The locations of landscape resources within the Study Area and the Area of Interface, which are of particular local importance, are illustrated on Figure 3.2.1
FigureFigure 3.2.1
3.2.1.6 Typically the Study Area and the Area of Interface are densely urbanized and the limited available public open space has significant amenity value.  Approximately thirty public open spaces (sports only facilities are not included) have been identified, varying from small play spaces and sitting out areas to large parks having a high amenity value, such as Hoi Sham Park and Kowloon Walled City Park .  Several of the open spaces have additional features such as waterfront location (e.g. Hoi Sham Park and Tai Wai Shan Park ), or historical interest (e.g. Kowloon Wall City Park ) that further enhance their amenity value.
3.2.1.7 A review of the NAKTA Draft Tree Survey Report, dated May 2003 reveals that the site contains some 797 trees of which 530 were recommended for retention, 133 for transplantation and 134 for felling. These trees included a mixture of young to old, native and non-native species of varying value. Several more significant trees were identified such as some mature specimens of Delonix regia, Ficus microcarpa and Aleurites moluccana. The survey of the existing trees also identified two ‘Champion Trees’ (Professor C.Y. Jim, 1994) located to the west of the development site.
Landscape Character
3.2.1.8 In terms of the prevailing landscape character the Study Area is bounded by the coastal areas of southeast Kowloon from Hung Hom to Ma Tau Kok, Kowloon City, Kowloon Bay and Kwun Tong.  This results in an overall landscape context dominated by manmade and urban characters, much of it on reclaimed coastline. 
3.2.1.9 Within this context the Study Area is dominated by the former Kai Tak Airport site, which, despite its apparent lack of landscape elements is considered to be an important landscape feature as a whole due to its distinctive location, a history dating over sixty years and worldwide recognition. Therefore it is important that any proposals arising from the study respect the sites historical context. 
3.2.1.10 The surrounding areas are a mixture of distinct land uses and, therefore, create a patchwork of different landscape character types. In broad terms, the land areas surrounding the airport site are dominated by industrial or mixed industrial / residential areas. These include light industry, factories and warehousing aligned on relatively simple grid layouts. These areas are generally lacking in distinctive landscape character, being utilitarian in nature.  Interspersed within these surrounding areas are areas of high- and medium-rise housing. Overall, these are considered to be of medium sensitivity, due to a mix of their high disturbance and manmade character, together with the presence of residential open space.
3.2.1.11 Village/squatter areas are also present in Ngau Chi Wan and Cha Kwo Ling.  They contain areas of mature tree planting, providing an important landscape resource and vegetative buffer within Kowloon .
3.2.1.12 The density of the development of the Kowloon in the immediate proximity of the site has resulted in, overall, a lack of public open space at a local level. Within the landscape context study boundary, there are a number of open spaces, including parks and sports facilities (and future open spaces), which are therefore considered to be of high sensitivity due to their local importance as a landscape resource. These spaces provide the catalyst for the development of the future landscape framework for the KTD.
3.2.1.13 The Landscape and Visual Impact Assessment (LVIA) section of the EIA Report completed under the SEKD CFS found that the scale of the KTD proposals and its waterfront location would inevitably result in significant visual and landscape impacts. LVIA suggested that these could be minimized through careful consideration of the layout plans incorporating features such as view corridors and relocation of Sung Wong Toi Rock.  The study concluded that the scale of the KTD and its visual prominence was likely to lead to significant detrimental effects on the landscape and visual amenity of the area, particularly that of the surrounding Kowloon Bay areas due to the loss of waterfront, enclosure and block / interruption of currently open views.  The potential impact under the current Study will depend on the development scheme to be formulated.
Landscape Constraints and Opportunities
3.2.1.14 Appendix 3.2.1 summaries the landscape considerations regarding to the baseline conditions and the landscape concepts developed in the SEKD CFS and FUDS reports and the conflicts which may arise with the proposed “no-reclamation” development scenario.  The major landscape planning constraint relative to the schemes proposed under the preceding studies is the significant reduction of total planned area under the no-reclamation scenario.  Every endeavor nevertheless should be sought to promote greening and landscaping in the Study Area and to create “A City in the Park”.  This summary of landscape constraints and opportunities is also illustrated on Figure 3.2.2 Review of Landscape Initiatives Proposed in Previous Studies
FigureFigure 3.2.2
3.2.2 Review of Landscape Initiatives Proposed in Previous Studies
3.2.2.1 The stated objective of the SEKD CFS, NAKTA and other relevant SEKD studies and the subsequent FUDS was the creation of world class landscape proposals that would distinguish KTD from other urban areas both in Hong Kong and throughout the world.  The main landscape initiatives developed under these studies are outlined below together with their relevance to the no-reclamation scenario underlying this study.  Each of the three key studies is reviewed separately except where there is significant overlap between the landscape initiatives.
3.2.2.2 As stated in the previous studies it should be emphasized that the design of the landscape framework is inextricably linked with the planning and urban design approach and these are described under Sections 2 and 3.1 of this report. 
SEKD CFS
3.2.2.3 The SEKD CFS identified a number landscape design objectives for the public realm:
Objectives
· Creating ‘A City in the Park’ for Hong Kong is one of the major objective;
· To provide a landscape framework integrated with the urban design proposals to ensure a high quality, clean and healthy  living environment;
· To promote the creation of visitor attractions of regional and international quality and to create a ‘city of interest’ containing a quality environment enhanced by landscape treatments;
· To provide high quality public open space; and
· To create a legible open space hierarchy, to provide a variety of pedestrian environments and to ensure pedestrians can circulate unimpeded throughout the development.  
3.2.2.4 The proposed landscape framework for the KTD emphasized the creation of a coherent, interconnected and continuous landscape system linked to open spaces within the adjacent areas served by a strong pedestrian network. The study stressed the importance of pattern, location and content of the open spaces within the public realm and the linkages between them. Areas within the public realm included all open spaces, streetscape and roadside landscape which would be fully accessible to the public.     
Design Themes
3.2.2.5 The SEKD CFS also identified distinct landscape themes of ‘Earth’, ‘Water’ and ‘Air’ were proposed for NAKTA, Hoi Sham and the Runway respectively to create a sense of community and aid orientation within this large urban development. Whereas the FUDS for Planning and Development of SEK concluded that these themes were based on arbitrary areas and bore no relation to the proposed landscape and urban design frameworks. Further the study suggested that landscape character was a product of high quality design that creates an appropriate coherent landscape and urban design character for the planned development.  It should also be noted that the complexity of landscape found in other major cities of the world will develop over time as each district establishes its own landuse character.  The SEK project is a totally new development and so the process of creating distinctive landscape characters requires the implementation of a strong design philosophy which will kick start this evolutionary process.
Open Space Framework
3.2.2.6 The landscape framework proposed under the SEKD CFS adopted a hierarchical approach with Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Open Space.
3.2.2.7 Three Primary Open Spaces were identified seeking to establish a unique district identity and sense of place, and were intended to be used by international and local tourists, and local residents. These spaces included:
· The Metropolitan Park : The park formed the key central open space and open space focus in the heart of KTD landscape framework connecting boulevards and landscape corridors emanating from it. It therefore remains as a primary objective in this study. 
· The Victoria Harbour Promenade: This continuous public open space provided a traffic free pedestrian corridor along the waterfront within Hoi Sham and along the edge of the Kai Tak Runway and Kai Tak Point.  The scale and form of the promenade will be reduced by the ‘No Reclamation” scenario, the design of this space and its functions remains a key concern for this study. 
· Kai Tak Boulevard : The boulevard formed major open space spine aligned along a key view corridor extending from the Metropolitan Park linking the hinterland to the north of the development with the waterfront. It is remains an important design consideration in this Study.
3.2.2.8 The SEKD CFS also identified 12 Secondary and 6 Tertiary Open Spaces within KTD designed to serve the recreation needs and to provide garden spaces for both local residents and visitors.  These spaces were designed to provide visual and physical relief within the built up areas. The total number of these open spaces will be significantly reduced with the “No Reclamation” scenario, new open spaces are therefore reconsidered for the development areas according to requirements of the Hong Kong Planning and Standard Guidelines (HKPSG) and compliment the architectural style of the adjacent built form. This hierarchical approach to the design and layout of the open space network remains relevant to this study.
Pedestrian Connectors
3.2.2.9 Another key element of the landscape framework proposed under SEKD CFS was the at-grade and elevated pedestrian connectors. These included a hierarchy of traffic free linear public open spaces and roadside landscape and grade separated linkages. The following connectors were considered critical to the promoting connectivity with KTD and to its hinterland:
3.2.2.10 External Pedestrian Connectors and Linkages - External pedestrian connectors included footbridges, landscape decks and subway links above and below the peripheral roads. At-grade crossings were proposed between existing residential areas and the proposed development. Whilst the links proposed under the landscape framework were extensive there is an opportunity to further enhance connectivity with the hinterland.
3.2.2.11 The maintenance and enhancement of visual connections including the proposed view corridors formed a key design parameter within KTD and these determined the location and disposition of the proposed high-rise development. The main visual linkages included:
· The view corridor from the Metropolitan Park to Lion Rock along Tai Tak Boulevard Regional Open Space;
· The view corridor from the Metropolitan Park along a broad linear District Open Space above the covered drainage reserve to Fei Ngo Shan; and
· The view corridor from Sung Wong Toi Rock – Lei Yue Mun Corridor extending from the Metropolitan Park and along the waterfront.
3.2.2.12 These view corridors and their nexus serve to reinforce the importance of the central landscape open space focus. As has been described above the view corridors proposed under the SEKD CFS if implemented would be likely to be more symbolic than actual due to the physical distances and the proximity of the proposed built development.
3.2.2.13 Internal Pedestrian Network - The landscape framework proposed under SEKD CFS was designed to maximize the opportunities for at-grade pedestrian network with occasional grade separated linkages where unavoidable conflicts occurred with the proposed road network. As with the open space proposals this pedestrian network adopted a hierarchical approach which anticipated the needs of user groups, the volume of pedestrian traffic, the location and the direction of movement. The separation of vehicular and pedestrian traffic is concept which should be carried forward into the landscape design of the ‘No Reclamation’ development scenario. 
3.2.2.14 Landscape Decks - The aim of the landscaped decks was to provide a safe and attractive pedestrian link over major roads and ensure the connectivity of the landscape framework with that of the hinterland. The use of landscape decks provides for the continuation of the landscape framework and pedestrian network into the hinterland.  Where possible the landscape treatment should respond to the character of adjacent proposed and existing landscape open spaces.
3.2.2.15 Road Landscape - The SEKD CFS also considered roads important in terms of their serving as an interface between pedestrian and vehicular traffic. Three basic types have been defined under the SEKD CFS:
3.2.2.16 "Standard" Roads - Roadside landscape was viewed as being an integral part of the public realm, a key element in the proposed Landscape Framework and essential in alleviating the potential adverse impacts arising from the extensive infrastructure and in the establishment of a distinctive landscape character in each area. The SEKD CFS envisaged that landscape treatment for each road should be similar in terms of its layout and structure but also reflect the character of the area through which it passed.  This was to be achieved through the species composition of the vegetation as well as the layout and type of hard landscape components including paving, signage and lighting.
3.2.2.17 Pedestrianised Streets with Access - The main functions ascribed to pedestrianised streets were to promote safe pedestrian movement free from vehicular traffic and create a more pleasing pedestrian environment. The landscape design guidelines envisaged that tree planting would be the major feature of pedestrian streets, and the character of the corridor was to be established through the use of a particular species composition and soft landscape design, and the use of hard landscape materials. Tree planting was intended to provide subtle definition between the roads and the pavements, and where possible the trees were to be planted at-grade allowing for the free unimpeded flow of pedestrian traffic.
3.2.2.18 Traffic Calming Streets - The proposals for traffic calming along selected roads utilized the standard design approach of introducing a narrowing of the carriageway and speed humps to reduce traffic speed. Again tree planting played a major role in the landscape design and the form and appearance of these trees would reflect the intended landscape character of the road corridor or the area through which the road passed.
3.2.2.19 The overall landscape framework and design guidelines under the SEKD CFS were formulated to provide a hierarchy of open space and pedestrian connector networks. The landscape framework provided detailed design guidelines for each of district within the KTD. These were then reviewed under the FUDS to ensure their successful integration within the urban design framework- developed under that study.
3.2.2.20 While many of the proposed landscape proposals were retained within the subsequent studies namely the NAKTA and FUDS studies, others were modified so as meet different landscape and urban design expectations. This process will continue with the design proposals for the No Reclamation development scenario.
Design and Construction Consultancy on SEKD Infrastructure at NAKTA (NAKTA Study)
3.2.2.21 The following section provides an overview of the ongoing study for the NAKTA District (Area 1 in this Study).
3.2.2.22 Interface Between Landscape and Engineering Works - The SEKD CFS and subsequent NAKTA studies encountered a number of potential conflicts in observing the technical design parameters of individual disciplines.  Innovative solutions are required through the collaboration of all of the relevant design disciplines and a recognition that this project aims to be world class.  
3.2.2.23 A number of proposed design solutions have been identified by NAKTA to address some of the above and these were summarized in the subsequent FUDS. The study's analysis of the problems and some possible solutions are given in Appendix 3.2.2 and reviewed under the current Study.
3.2.2.24 Provision of Temporary Open Space in NAKTA  - The landscape framework should where possible be completed prior to the first population intake of residential developments to cater for their functional and recreational needs.
3.2.2.25 Noise Barriers – Noise barriers would occupy a significant proportion of land adjacent to affected highways, and in some locations there would be no available space for planting. Ways to reduce the extent of noise barrier provision were examined by the NAKTA Study and some preliminary ideas explored in the subsequent FUDS study. This process should continue under this study.
FUDS for Planning and Development of South East Kowloon
3.2.2.26 Further to the SEKD CFS objectives, the FUDS reverted to more practical urban and landscape design considerations based on the character, continuity and definition, quality of the public realm, ease of movement, legibility, adaptability, diversity richness, identity and durability. These principles form the basic building blocks of good urban and landscape design and as such are relevant to this study.
3.2.2.27 These design principles should be carried forward into the design of the public realm and open space framework. However, it should be noted that whilst it is important to get the foundations of the open space design in place its long term success will largely be dependent on its evolution over time and the participation of the public in shaping its future programme and character.
3.2.2.28 FUDS adopted a more integrated approach to the landscape and urban design based on a number of key individual planning areas as opposed to the more thematic approach adopted under the SEKD CFS (For a Study Area index plan, please refer to Figure 1.2.1):
3.2.2.29 High Density Residential cum G/IC Developments in Area 1 - The overall vision was to establish an identifiable urban residential area with a strong sense of place with the built environment focused around a central open space. Green corridors are planned to link the area with the wider district and open space system, whilst the integration of Kai Tak Station will provide for a convenient means of public transport.
3.2.2.30 SCL Depot and Residential Developments in Area 2 - Under FUDS this district was divided into two distinct parts: the overall development and SCL Depot. The overall vision was to establish a mixed use urban quarter and emphasize the major pedestrian gateways into SEK from the North and which successfully addresses potential adverse landscape and visual impacts that could arise from proposed infrastructural elements (e.g. the SCL depot). 
3.2.2.31 Town Centre, Office and Residential Development in Area 3 - The overall vision was to establish a distinctive and well defined urban residential area, with vibrant streets and a responsive interface with adjoining existing and future areas, and with the proposed waterfront CDA. From a landscape perspective the development sought to provide open space and pedestrian connections between this area, the new waterfront and the Metropolitan Park .
3.2.2.32 Residential and G/IC (Schools and Hospitals) Development Area 4 - The overall vision for this area was the creation of a distinctive sense of place based on street definition, a well articulated form linked to urban spaces and a variety of uses. Open spaces and view corridors were designed to maximize functional and visual links with the surrounding districts and natural features.
3.2.2.33 Waterfront Promenade and Residential Development in Area 5 - The vision for this area was to establish a continuous waterfront and parkland, with different points of identity and positive interrelationships with adjoining building groups.
3.2.2.34 Tourism Node cum Cruise Terminal, Typhoon Shelter and Regional Facilities - The overall vision was to establish an amalgamation of visitor and tourist facilities, including the Cruise Terminal.  These facilities were to exploit the waterfront in terms of its setting and prominent views, and establish links to the wider transport and pedestrian networks.
3.2.2.35 The other landscape relevant topics covered by FUDS included the following.
· Open Space - Under FUDS a total of 130.68 ha were designated as open space to serve the resident population, the wider population of the SAR and overseas visitors. In addition to the Metropolitan Park and waterfront promenade, 15 major areas of open space were proposed within KTD.
3.2.2.36 Transport, Pedestrian Circulation, Cycle Use and Public Transport Corridors - The FUDS included the provision of purpose-designed cycle tracks, separated from pedestrian walkways and footpaths, and segregated from roads by planted reserves. Components would include rest areas, cycle parks, hire facilities, integration of seating, railings, signage and lighting columns, together with the orchestration of junction and cross-over points, and emergency service accessibility.
Summary
3.2.2.37 This section has provided a review of past landscape initiatives prepared for the Study Area. In summary the review found that:
· Many of the theme and concepts developed for the SEKD CFS were reviewed under the NAKTA and FUDS, and in many cases the findings of these reviews have currency for this study. These include the development of a main central focus space (namely the Metropolitan Park or an equivalent), the creation of secondary and tertiary open spaces as part of the overall landscape and open space framework, landscape connectors and linkages within the urban fabric and the hinterland area, and landscape buffer areas to screen more unsightly landuses such as the major infrastructure and where possible integrate them into the overall development.
· The SEKD CFS recommended the use of themed areas for the establishment of distinctive landscape character within each of the districts. Whereas the subsequent studies NAKTA and FUDS concentrated more on the quality of the landscape and urban design components (planting, paving, street furniture etc) together with provision for these districts to development their own character based their individual landuse patterns.  It is the contention of this review that the character of individual areas within the major cities of the world has developed over a long period of time and that totally new developments require some prompting. The success or otherwise of these character prompting measures depends very much on their interpretation and the skill of the designer at the detailed design stage of the project.  This should be coupled with the approach recommended by the NATKA and FUDS.  
· The introduction of noise barriers into NAKTA had major ramifications on the cohesiveness of the present landscape framework for the area. Ways to reduce the extent of the noise barriers should be carefully explored in the current Study with a view to create an overall quality street environment.
The interface between landscape design and engineering requirements has to be handled with care and sensitivity.
· SEKD CFS, NAKTA and FUDS landscape proposals were developed within a different planning context than exists today. The preparation of landscape proposals under the current study will have to follow an iterative approach that takes cognizance of the previous studies but is also aware of the new requirements of the ‘No Reclamation’ development scenario.
3.2.3 General Landscape Concept
3.2.3.1 A preliminary landscape concept plan is presented in Figure 3.2.3 for illustration and further exploration and is broadly based on the SEKD CFS, NAKTA and FUDS proposals.  The major landscape design principles discussed in the previous section have been used in formulating this landscape concept for “No Reclamation” development scenario.  In this illustrative concept, the primary open spaces proposed in previous studies have been used as the reference, with modifications to suit the new scenario.  The following key landscape elements have been included under the general landscape concept:
· Metropolitan Park – May remain as a major open space for the area. The scale of the park may be reduced and one idea is to move its location to the south as a part of waterfront connection between Areas 1, 3 and 4.  There is opportunity that this space forms the central focus of KTD from a landscape design perspective and forms the nexus for visual corridors and pedestrian access within the site
· Kai Tai Boulevard – May remain along the Lion Rock view corridor connecting to the Metro Park as major linear open space in the area.
· Stadium Complex and Garden – The location of the Stadium may be moved towards the Lion Rock corridor in order to create a landmark feature within this view corridor and the possible Kai Tak Approach Channel water recreation corridor.  Garden and green areas associated with the Stadium Complex on its east may provide a green buffer against the CKR and Kai Tak Nullah reserved area, whilst an interface treatment with the Metropolitan Park is required to the west.
Sung Wong Toi Garden – There is a potential for its extension to the east into the KTD site.  This area may provide a passive recreation space and retain the relative tranquillity at the fringe area of the site.  It may also act a buffer area for future development adjacent to Prince Edward Road East in Area 1.
· Terrace Garden – Landscape deck may be retained in the new proposal for enhanced connectivity between Area 1 and Kowloon City .  However the design of the landscape decks may take a more site responsive approach.
· Station Area Open Spaces – This refers to the at-grade or elevated open space associated with the SCL associated development.  Green connectors may link up these spaces with the major landscape component including Metropolitan Park and promenade.
· Marina Park and Marina Walk – Although there is a major reduction of reclaimed land in Area 3, Marina Park may still be considered where it interfaces with the adjacent Hoi Shum Park (whether it is a “Marina” Park will depend on the suitability and feasibility of an adjoining marina there).  Promenade connection between Areas 3 and 4 may be enhanced by providing a feature pedestrian bridge, say called Marina Walk, from Marina Park to Promenade Garden .
· Meandering Promenade Design -   The promenade design will be a combination of shaded pedestrian walkways, individual courtyards, gardens and piazza spaces connecting the waterfront development.
· Grand Boulevard - The location of this space may be retained in the middle of Areas 4 and 5 providing a historical resonance for the Runway district.  Where possible, the Boulevard may end at Kai Tak Point Garden , with an aviation landmark feature at this vanishing point to recall its historical character.  Any potential conflict of this design with the possible heliport at the site will have to be further studied.
· Cruise Terrace – If cruise terminal development is kept in the future proposal, associated open space is required connecting Kai Tak Point Garden and waterfront promenade. Recommendations include the development of a terraced northern façade which provides both physical and visual linkages with the at-grade open spaces.
· Channelside Walk vs Kai Tak Approach Channel Reclamation – Retaining the Kai Tak Approach Channel would potentially create a more interesting and varied urban form with the increase in waterfront development to the east and west of the channel.  It may facilitate the creation of a secondary view corridor along the channel, with water recreation informing the character for future development.  A side walk instead of a formal promenade may be explored as secondary open space for Areas 2, 4, 5 and 6.  The Stadium Complex may act as a landmark feature at the northern end of this corridor.  Not the least, retaining the Kai Tak Approach Channel would help highlight the unique feature of the former runway and so provide a link to the history of the site.  It should however be noted that any reclamation has to satisfy the “overriding public need” test.  Readers should refer to Section 2.3.1 for more discussion.
· Kowloon Bay Piazza – Lam Fung Street Parking Lot could potentially be renovated into a District Open Space with visual links to the proposed new open space and Promenade Garden along the Kowloon Peak visual corridor.
On the other hand, the benefits of reclaiming the Kai Tak Approach Channel include the creation of stronger visual and physical links with the Runway North and the South Apron Areas of the site, and beyond to the Kowloon Bay and Kwun Tong areas.  The reclamation could potentially allow greater space for the introduction of a more elaborate landscape framework including public open space.  It would also allow for a more permeable urban form with green fingers of landscape extending from the waterfront promenade along the southern side of the former Runway North into the proposed urban development of the South Apron Area and eventually connecting with existing landscape resources to the north of the Kwun Tong Bypass.  The reclamation would also allow the proposed Metropolitan Park to extend south and occupy a more prominent position at the intersection of the main landscape and visual corridors running through the site.  This elaborated landscape framework would potentially form the catalyst for any future redevelopment of the open space network within the hinterland area.
· Interface with Road Infrastructure – All of the previous studies have emphasized the importance of a screen buffer at the northern and northeast side of the site against the elevated roads and infrastructure reserves.  Extensive roadside planting along adjourning major roads will also serve as buffer between existing industrial area and future development sites.
Similar applies to the future Central Kowloon Route and Road T2, where buffer planting would be important.  For the portal of the Central Kowloon Route , for engineering considerations, it is likely to occupy a key location near the waterfront and would potentially obscure the link between the runway and the North Apron Area. In preparing the landscape plan for the area, particular attention to the landscape treatment of the portal area such that any open space covering the area does work as an open space, and the landscape and pedestrian connectivity of the area will not be sacrificed by the road barrier.  One possible idea would be to create a landscape deck over the portal similar in concept to the Seattle Freeway Park although terraced to accommodate the ascent of the carriageway as it emerges from the tunnel.  This terracing could also incorporate some fill areas shaped to create a landform more akin to the natural promontories which once characterized the shore of Victoria Harbour, thus creating a more naturalistic landform and maximizing the greenery in views from Victoria Harbour and from within the development area.  
FigureFigure 3.2.3
3.3 Cultural Heritage
3.3.1 Brief History
Kowloon City
3.3.1.1 Kowloon City is considered by many as one of the oldest parts of the city.  It typifies the fading trace of the early ways of Hong Kong living.  Besides the association of the area with the Song Emperor Brothers, the Kowloon Walled City and the ex-Kai Tak Airport are also significant historical developments housed within Kowloon City . The Song Boy – Emperor Shih and Emperor Ping and Kowloon City .
The Song Boy – Emperor Shih and Emperor Ping and Kowloon City
3.3.1.2 The Heartland of Southern Song State was conquered by the Mongol army in stages between late 1274 and 1276.  Duzong, who was the Emperor at that time, died at the latter stage of the invasion.  One of his concubines, Concubine Yang, with the aid of her brother, Marquis Yang, fled the State in 1275.   Taking with her in exile, her son Prince Shih and the son of another concubine, Prince Ping.
3.3.1.3 The Princes first arrived in Fuchow , China where Prince Shih was proclaimed Emperor.  They then moved to Kowloon City and other places in Hong Kong .  The five months of the summer and autumn of 1277 was the only relatively peaceful period of the Emperor Shih’s period.  Although short, the stay of the brother in Kowloon City entered deeply into the legends and records of the Kowloon City ’s villagers.
3.3.1.4 The Hau Wong Temple , located west of the Walled City , was dedicated to the Marquis Yang.  The villagers proclaimed that the temple was built on the site of the house where the Marquis Yang lived during the stay of the Imperial Family in Kowloon .
3.3.1.5 Another temple near Ma Tau Wai village, the Sheung Ti Temple, is believed by some scholars to have connection with the Song Imperial.  It has been suggested that the temple was originally the Song Court worshipping centre.  However, there is no evidence yet for this scholarly speculation.
3.3.1.6 The centre of the stay of the Song’s legends is, however, the Sacred Hill, the Hill of the Song Princes.  Before the hill was cleared by the Japanese Army in 1942 for their airport extension and then the remainder by the British in 1956 for the construction of airport runway, a large rock stood on the summit with inscription “Sung Wong Toi” engraved on it.  A portion of the rock with the inscription survived the blasting of the hill was re-erected a little north-west of the original site.  With the stay of the Song’s brother, the Sacred Hill is therefore one of the most important historical sites in Kowloon , and the Sung Wong Toi is the central local memorial of their stay.  Since the most sacred part of the Sacred Hill stood at the westernmost part of the Kai Tak site, the area is considered of important historical and cultural heritage significance, even though no trace of the original hill survives.
The Kowloon Walled City
3.3.1.7 The Kowloon Walled City (the Walled City ) is considered as another important development housed within Kowloon City bearing significant historical and cultural significant.  The Walled City was considered as the largest walled city in Hong Kong and one of the largest in the world. 
3.3.1.8 Back in the Song Dynasty, the Emperor's troops arrived at the site of the future Walled City and built the first garrison.  Military presence continued throughout the Yuan Dynasty and Ming Dynasty, when a yamen (public official's residence) was established and troops stationed there.
3.3.1.9 The Walled City was fortified in 1668 when a signal station was established.  The City took the form of a rough parallelogram measuring 210 by 120 metres.  There were 6 watch towers and four gateways.
3.3.1.10 During Japanese occupation in the 1940s, the Japanese army demolished much of the Walled City to provide building materials for the nearby Kai Tak Aerodrome, an extension of the nearby Kai Tak Airport .  After the war, the Walled City was once again occupied by squatters and in 1987, Britain and China agreed on its demolition.
3.3.1.11 In August 1995, Kowloon Walled City Park was opened on the original site of the Walled City . Although little of the original City remains, the Yamen has been restored and some interesting relics are preserved to remind people of its historical past.
Aviation - Kai Tak Airport
3.3.1.12 The story of Kai Tak started in 1924.  Back at that time the site of Kai Tak belonged to two businessmen, Sir Ho Kai and Mr. Au Tak, which explains the name of the airport.  The site was originally planned for residential development but was given back to the government after the plan failed.
3.3.1.13 Aviation activities first began at Kai Tak in 1925 when the first recorded flight took place on Lunar New Year’s day.  In 1928, a concrete slipway was built for seaplanes utilizing Kowloon Bay .  The first control tower and hanger were built in 1935 and Kai Tak began its journey as an airport for public air services in around 1936 with flights flying between Hong Kong and a limited number of cities such as San Francisco , Guangzhou , Shanghai and Beijing .
3.3.1.14 During the Second World War, a second runway was built by the Japanese.  After the war, the Cathay Pacific Airways, a local airline, began its operation at Kai Tak.  In 1954, the master plan for the development of an airport, the Hong Kong International (better known as the Kai Tak Airport ), was approved by the Government and the construction of a new runway and a passenger terminal began. 
3.3.1.15 Improvement and expansion works were subsequently carried out to the airport including the extension of runway, the addition of the Hong Kong Air Cargo Terminal in 1976 and the expansion of the passenger terminal to cater for the strong increase in air traffic. 
3.3.1.16 Although Kai Tak Airport had ceased operation with the opening of the new international airport at Chep Lap Kok in 1998, the history of Kai Tak remains a very important part of Hong Kong ’s aviation history and technology development.
3.3.2 Heritage Assets for Preservation/Enhancement
3.3.2.1 A number of resources and areas of cultural heritage importance have been identified within the KTD Study Area.  They are discussed in the following (Figure 3.3.1):
(a)   Sung Wong Toi Inscription Rock
The history of the Sung Wong Toi Inscription Rock, as described in para. 3.1.1.6 above, was originally located on the summit of Sacred Hill.  To preserve the historical heritage, the Government built " Sung Wong Toi Garden " on the west of the "Sacred Hill". The huge rock was cut into a rectangle and moved into the Garden when the construction work was completed in the winter of that year.
The Environmental Impact Assessment of for the SEKDCFS (SEKDCFS-EIA) recommended that a small artificial hill to be erected on the site of the original Scared Hill, and that the Sung Wong Toi Inscription Rock to be placed on the summit of this artificial hill to reflect the importance and solemnity of the site and its historical associations.  This recommendation will be further examined in the present Study.
(b)   Fishtail Rock
To the southwest of the KTD lies the Fishtail Rock which was originally a tiny island, Shek Pai, within the To Kwa Wan Bay.  The rock is dramatically shaped which resembles the tail of a giant fish diving into the sea.  This rock was being worshipped by local boat people in the old days.  A temple, the Hoi Sham Lung Mu Temple, which stood at the foot of the rock was demolished in 1964 for urban development.  In the late 1960s, the rock was joined to the land as a result of reclamation and is now located in Hoi Sham Park
The Fishtail Rock represents the way of life and culture of the boat people of the Kowloon Bay area, and is of significant cultural and historical heritage value.
As recommended previous KTD studies, the Fishtail Rock in the existing Hoi Sham Park would be preserved with an unobstructed view corridor leading to the future waterfront.  Pedestrian linkage between the park and the KTD would be planned to make the site more accessible.  AMO also advised that the Fishtail Rock should be preserved.
(c)    Hong Kong Flying School and Aviation Club buildings (former Far East Flying Training School )
The Former Far East Flying Training School was the first commercially aviation enterprise in Hong Kong providing a fully spectrum of flying and engineering training for pilots of British and other nationalities, and was once the largest aviation – training establishment at of Suez .
Since the 1970s, the school began to face competition from education institutions and in-house training programmes of commercial aviation enterprises.  The school was eventually sold to the Hong Kong Aviation Club in 1983.
The SEKD CFS proposed for the preservation and relocation of the group of buildings to the tourist node of KTD to remark the post war development of Kai Tak Airport .  The AMO also advised that the buildings should be preserved, which will be further considered under the current Study.
(d)   Remnants of the ex-Kai Tak Airport
Remnants of the ex-Kai Tak Airport remaining today include two wind poles, the airport pier and the seawall.  While SEKDCFS-EIA recommended to conduct detailed cartographic and photographic recordings of these remnants prior to the commencement of any demolition works, preliminary consultation with AMO indicated that these items should be preserved.  Besides, while the former passenger terminal building will soon to demolished, it is worth exploring the preservation of the ex-Air Traffic Control Tower, an interesting feature of the building complex there.
(e)    Kowloon Rock
Kowloon Rock is located in the harbour south of Kai Tak runway.  The EIA Report of the SEKDCFS found that the rock had no known heritage significance, although it may have possible fung shui importance to former villages in the area.  No known associations with the boat population could be found.
As advised by the AMO, the Kowloon Rock together with the Post should be preserved. 
FigureFigure 3.3.1
3.3.3 Previous Land and Marine Archaeological Investigations
3.3.3.1 Land Archaeological Investigations
3.3.3.1.1 Before the Kai Tak reclamation, the original coastline of the Kowloon Bay was distributed slightly south to today’s Prince Edward Road East .  As reported in the SEKDCFS-EIA, three potential archeological sites have been recognized in the original seashore area:
(a)     Kowloon Fort Potential Archeological Site
The Kowloon Fort was built in 1811 with four cannons to protect the Kowloon City Market from the pirates.  The fort had been used afterwards as the Kowloon City Police Station down to the late 1920s.  This fort site now lies underneath Prince Edward Road .
(b)     Longjin Bridge Potential Archeological Site
The Longjin Bridge refers to the long stone pier built between 1873 and 1875 but was destroyed for the Kai Tak reclamation except its few first sections to the landward end which is buried under Prince Edward Road.  Almost the entire bridge site now lies under the western part of the Kai Tak Terminal Building , the adjacent car park building and the roadway between them. The SEKD-EIA proposed that archeological site investigation with trial pit / trench around the 1943 coastline and the old reclamation area prior to the construction at the North Apron area.
(c)      Kai Tak Potential Archeological Site
The Kai Tak Archeological Site comprises remains of two villages established on the then seacoast during the late eighteenth century or early nineteenth century.  One of the villages was the Ma Tau Chung which stood exactly at the location occupied by the Aviation Club premises.  The other village, Kau Pui Shek, was located further westward.
3.3.3.1.2 Subsequent to the SEKDCFS-EIA, further archeological investigations were undertaken under the NAKTA Study.  Two test trenches were undertaken near the western corner of the North Apron area surrounded by the Olympic Avenue and Sung Wong Toi Road in January 2002.   The findings of the investigation suggested that the locations of the two test trenches were reclaimed during the 1958 extension of the airport.
3.3.3.1.3 As per the recommendations of the SEKDCFS-EIA, a more comprehensive archeological site investigation with ten test trenches covering the Kowloon Fort potential archeological site, the Longjin Bridge potential archeological site, the Kai Tak potential archeological site, and the potential archeological site of ancient coastline had been undertaken under the NAKTA Study.  The results of the investigations showed no significant findings except the discovery of a seawall made of granite blocks and concrete with landing steps dated to 1924 during an archeological investigation conducted in 2003.  The AMO has advised for the preservation of this seawall remnant, which will be further considered in the current Study (Figure 3.3.1).
3.3.3.2 Marine Archaeological Investigations
3.3.3.2.1 The review of the marine archeological investigations of the Study Area focuses on two studies – the SEKDCFS-EIA and the Final Review Report of the South East Kowloon Development Kowloon Bay Reclamation – Design and Construction.
SEKDCFS – EIA (July 2001)
3.3.3.2.2 Since there were no dedicated marine archeological surveys until the introduction of the EIA Ordinance in 1998, only little is known about the archeological potential of the seabed deposits in Hong Kong .  The only marine archeological discovery was that of a late Song/early Ming Dynasty (1368 – 1644) boat uncovered during the construction of the High Island Reservoir near Sai Kung.  Since formation of underwater archeological sites is mainly due to shipwrecks, the Baseline Marine Archeological Review of the SEKD-EIA aimed to examine the evidence for maritime activity within the Study Area to predict for potential shipwreck.
3.3.3.2.3 The results of the baseline review indicated a high potential for marine archeological material within the Study Area.  It was advised that geophysical surveys should be conducted within the area should dredging and reclamation activities be included as part of future development. 
Final Review Report of the SEKD Kowloon Bay Reclamation – Design and Construction (Dec 2003)
3.3.3.2.4 Three reports on marine archeological investigation were reviewed under this study, they included:
(a) Geophysical survey carried out from 10-11.2001 by the Institute of Geophysical & Geochemical Exploration for the Geotechnical Engineering Office, Civil Engineering Department, HKSAR.
(b) SEKDCFS - Marine Archeological Investigation   Agreement No. CE32/99.  Report prepared for Environmental Resource Limited in March 2002 by SDA Marine
(c) The Revised Scheme of South East Kowloon Development: MAI Report on field investigation: 23-28/9/2002 FINAL by Cosmos Coroneos in March 2003 for Archaeo-Environments Ltd .
3.3.3.2.5 The review indicated that the Marine Archeological Investigations did not locate any archeological significant material.  The recommendations for archeological monitoring of the dredged material within 20m of the Kowloon Rock were accepted by the AMO should reclamation proceed.  Moreover, any discovery of antiquities or supposed antiquities be found during dredging operations, the contractor should make immediate report to the AMO and take steps to preserve the items found.