Chapter 8 : Internal Transport Facilities

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1. Introduction

1.1 Policy Objective

1.2 Relationship with other Chapters of the HKPSG and Transport Planning and Design Manual (TPDM)

2. Rail Facilities

2.1 General Objective

2.2 Types of Rail Systems

2.3 Standards for Rail Systems

2.4 Locational Factors

2.5 Railway Protection

3. Road

3.1 Hierarchy of Roads

3.2 Standards for Urban Roads

3.3 Standards for Rural Roads

3.4 Standards for Service Roads

3.5 Locational Factors

3.6 Total Land Requirement for Roads

4. Public Transport Terminals

4.1 Franchised Bus Facilities

4.2 Public Light Bus Termini

4.3 Taxi Stands

4.4 Ferry Terminals

4.5 Public Transport Interchanges

4.6 Cross-boundary Coach Termini/Stops

5. Planning for Pedestrians

5.1 Walking and Pedestrian Environment

5.2 Broad Framework for Pedestrian Planning

5.3 Area Improvement Plan as a Tool for Integrated Improvement

5.4 Guidelines on Planning for Pedestrian Facilities

5.5 Guidelines for Improvement of Pedestrian Environment

5.6 Streetscape and Footpath

5.7 Universal Access for All

5.8 Provision of Desirable Footpath

5.9 Implementation

6. Cycling

6.1 General Objective

6.2 Cycle Tracks

6.3 Standards for Cycle Track

6.4 Cycle Park

6.5 Cycle Parking Areas

6.6 Standards for Cycle Parking Areas

7. Parking

7.1 General

7.2 Off-street Parking

7.3 On-Street Parking

7.4 Parking for Persons with Disabilities

Appendix 1 Transport Strategy 

Appendix 2 Summary of References for Technical Details


February 2014 Edition

1. Introduction


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1.1 Policy Objective

1.1.1 The New Transport Strategy entitled "Hong Kong Moving Ahead - A Transport Strategy for the Future" underpins the policy objective of providing and maintaining a safe, efficient and reliable transport system in an environmentally acceptable manner for the development of Hong Kong. The objectives of this strategy can be summarised as follows:

 
  • Better integration of transport and land use planning;

  • Better use of railways;

  • Better public transport services and facilities;

  • Better use of technology in traffic management; and

  • Better environmental protection measures in relation to transport infrastructure and activities.

1.1.2 All the objectives and initiatives of the Transport Strategy that are related to land use planning have been incorporated into the relevant sections of the HKPSG to ensure that due consideration will be given in the planning process. Details of these objectives and initiatives are in Appendix 1.

1.2 Relationship with other Chapters of the HKPSG and Transport Planning and Design Manual (TPDM)

1.2.1 In general, internal transport facilities such as roads, railways, terminals, depots, petrol filling stations etc. have the potential to cause damage to the environment. The transport/environment interaction forms one of the considerations in the evaluation of transport projects at the planning stage. Environmental Protection Department should be consulted on the environmental aspects of these projects. The environmental guidelines pertaining to internal transport facilities provided in Chapter 9 - "Environment", should be followed, as far as possible. For designated projects specified in the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Ordinance, the statutory EIA process should be followed.

1.2.2 Technical details are excluded in this Chapter but may, if necessary, be referred to in the TPDM prepared by Transport Department. A tabulated list of reference to appropriate sections in the Manual is provided in Appendix 2 for that purpose.


2. Rail Facilities


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2.1 General Objective

2.1.1 Rail will form the backbone of the passenger public transport network. There has been increasing development pressure for population and employment growth along existing and planned rail corridors. The Railway Development Strategy 2000 sets out the railway expansion plan for Hong Kong up to 2016.

2.1.2 As a matter of principle, in planning for new development areas and major population and employment centres, due consideration shall be given to maximise use of existing and proposed railway lines and stations. In planning for the provision of road access, care should be taken for such to complement the rail system and that there should be proper integration of road-based and rail-based transport.

2.2 Types of Rail Systems

2.2.1 At present, there are four different rail systems, serving different parts of the Territory:

 
  • The Peak Tramway

  • Hong Kong Tramways

  • The Mass Transit Railway

  • The North-west Railway (Tuen Mun - Yuen Long Light Rail System)

2.2.2 The above rail systems can be broadly classified into light rail and heavy rail, although the distinction is sometimes difficult to make when considering inter-urban railways. In general, the Mass Transit Railway may be termed heavy rail system, whereas the North-west Railway and the Hong Kong Tramways are light rail systems. Light rail systems consisting of short trains but with frequent stops are suitable for a lower passenger carrying capacity. On the other hand, heavy rail systems have much higher passenger carrying capacity in the transport system.

2.3 Standards for Rail Systems

2.3.1 The technical requirements for the various rail systems are not the same and are dependent on their operational characteristics.

2.3.2 The width, curvature and gradients of the rail tracks, size and design of stations/stops and depots, etc. should all be subjected to special feasibility studies to be approved by Transport Department, Highways Department and relevant Committees.

2.4 Locational Factors

2.4.1 In the process of planning either a new rail or a rail reserve, consideration should be given to integrating the rail project with the land use planning. A rail project can enhance development opportunities and vice-versa. It should take into account key planning parameters such as the distribution of population and employment centres to ensure that they would be best served by the rail. To enhance viability of the rail services, the development opportunities around rail stations, depots and public transport interchanges should be capitalised wherever practicable without compromising planning considerations such as infrastructure and environment.

2.4.2 Stations/public transport interchanges should preferably be located within a walking distance of 500m from major housing, employment, shopping, commercial, cultural and other population intensive activity centres with properly planned pedestrian walkway systems to improve connectivity. Within the longer range of this walking distance, and for distance up to 1 000m, consideration should be given as early as possible in the planning process to including facilities, such as travellator or moving walkway, to assist pedestrian movement between the stations/public transport interchanges and the other developments. This will help to promote usage of public transport services and to ease road congestion by alleviating the reliance on private vehicles.

2.4.3 Consideration should also be given to minimising the potential impact of the rail on noise sensitive receivers. Typical considerations would include optimum distance separation between rail alignments and noise sensitive receivers, provision of screening and absorbing elements and decking of depots. The planning considerations for underground and above ground railway lines and stations are also quite different. An underground railway would have less noise and visual concerns than an above ground railway. On the other hand, there could be certain ventilation shafts or fire access requirements for underground railway which should be taken into account in land use planning. Such differences in environmental impacts and associated planning implications should be take into account when planning railways and developments associated or near them. For details on specific environmental considerations, readers may refer to Chapter 9 and seek advice from Environmental Protection Department as appropriate.

2.5 Railway Protection

2.5.1 Railway Development Office (RDO) of Highways Department will issue from time to time administrative route protection plans before gazetting the railway schemes. Planning and development matters that may affect the railway protection zones should be referred to RDO for consideration.

2.5.2 The intention of administrative route protection is not to create planning blight, nor freeze development unnecessarily but to ensure that these proposed railway projects will not be frustrated by other developments. By adopting administrative route protection procedures, departments will have an early understanding of the interfacing issues arising from the railway proposals. Where there are likely conflicts, necessary and appropriate actions in line with Government's objective and policy could be taken timely to resolve them.


3. Road


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3.1 Hierarchy of Roads

3.1.1 An exact hierarchy of roads is difficult to define given the historical development of the road network within the Territory. However, roads may be classified broadly according to the particular functions they are intended to serve.

3.1.2 Expressways are roads connecting the main centres of population and activities and are designated under the Road Traffic Ordinance. Although they would perform similar functions to trunk roads and perhaps some primary distributor roads, they would be designed to a higher standard. Expressways are not confined to an urban or rural area but could traverse through both areas. Not all trunk or primary distributor roads will necessarily be expressways.

3.1.3 In urban areas (including Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Towns) the hierarchy comprises :

(a) trunk roads: for longer-distance traffic movements between main centres of population and activities;

(b) primary distributor roads: for traffic between centres within the main urban areas forming a primary road network;

(c) district distributor roads: for traffic between the primary road network and districts within the main urban areas; and

(d) local distributor roads: giving direct access from district distributor roads to buildings and land within districts.

3.1.4 In rural areas roads may be classified as :

(a) trunk roads: defined as in paragraph 3.1.3;

(b) rural roads A: for the movement of traffic from the smaller centres of population or popular recreation areas to the major road network;

(c) rural roads B: for traffic from villages to rural roads A;

(d) feeder roads: for traffic from more remote settlements to rural roads B; and

(e) single track access roads: for traffic from isolated developments to rural roads B.

3.1.5 As shown in Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3, Figure 4 & Figure 5, the total width of any road is derived from a number of components which may include, depending on the type and function of the road, the following :

(a) a carriageway or carriageways;

(b) footways;

(c) hard shoulders;

(d) verges, with or without planting reserves and marginal strips;

(e) central reserve and traffic island;

(f) service roads;

(g)  noise barriers; and

(h)  cycle tracks.

  Although guidance as to the appropriate widths of these components are given in later paragraphs, it is important that the design criteria actually adopted, particularly in terms of geometric features, traffic signing and road marking, are appropriate for the likely speed of traffic expected on the road. Many of the standards, therefore, should not be considered absolute maxima or minima but may need to be adjusted to suit particular circumstances including economic, environmental and road safety considerations. Reference should also be made to the Transport Planning and Design Manual Volume 2 Chapter 3 for the typical cross sections.

3.2 Standards for Urban Roads

3.2.1 The general design characteristics for the different road types may be described as follows :

(a) Expressways

  Dual carriageway roads with access only at widely spaced grade-separated junctions. A nearside hard shoulder should be provided on all sections and stopping restrictions apply at all times. Junctions should preferably be spaced at about 5km intervals but closer spacing desirably not less than 2km may be adopted depending on particular circumstances. Any pedestrian facilities provided should be completely segregated from vehicular traffic.

(b) Trunk Roads

  Dual carriageway roads with no direct frontage access and stopping restrictions applying at all times. Grade-separated junctions are preferred. When provided, junction centres should not be less than 1km apart. In case at-grade junctions are required because of physical or other constraints, they should be at least 300m apart. Any pedestrian facilities provided should be completely segregated from vehicular traffic.

(c) Primary Distributor Roads

  Dual carriageway roads similar in character to trunk roads.

(d) District Distributor Roads

  May be dual carriageway or single carriageway roads, with high capacity junctions, and peak hour stopping restrictions. On-street parking should not generally be provided. Direct frontage access may be permitted where necessary.

(e) Local Distributor Roads

  Generally single carriageway roads with direct frontage access. Stopping restrictions may be required, but normally only in the vicinity of junctions. On-street parking provision may be permitted.

3.2.2 Recommended carriageway widths in accordance with the TPDM are shown in Table 1.

Table 1 : Minimum Carriageway Widths in Urban Areas (TPDM)

[ Table Summary ]

Road Type Single Carriageway Dual Carriageway
Expressway and Trunk Road 
7.3m (2-lane)
11.0m (3-lane)
14.6m (4-lane)
Primary Distributor Road+ 
6.75m (2-lane)
10.0m (3-lane)
13.5m (4-lane)
District Distributor Road+  7.3m ( 2-lane)
10.3m (2-lane)*
13.5m (4-lane)
6.75m (2-lane)
10.0m (3-lane) 
Local Distributor Road+  7.3m ( 2-lane)
10.3m (2-lane)*
13.5m (4-lane)
6.75m (2-lane) 
   
+ Where there are tram tracks, a 5.5m wide tram reserve must be allowed for a double track system.

* When the peak hour traffic volume (two-way) exceeds 1 600 vehicles but is less than 2 400 vehicles, a wider 2-lane single carriageway should be used. The use of a 3-lane single carriageway is not recommended for safety reasons.

3.2.3 An additional 3m width on either or both sides of the carriageway should be provided on district and local distributor roads to accommodate parking and/or loading/unloading if either of these activities, when permitted, are likely to interfere with through traffic flow.

3.2.4 Private streets and access roads within private developments would normally be designed to criteria prescribed in the Buildings Ordinance, Cap 123 and the Building (Private Streets and Access Roads) Regulations. However, when it is intended that such roads should be open to public use and form part of the overall public road system, or where public transport is to be provided, the roads should instead be designed and constructed to standards in the TPDM and the requirements of Highways Department.

3.2.5 Minimum carriageway widths stipulated in the Building (Private Streets and Access Roads) Regulations are shown in Table 2. For private streets and access roads less than 6m wide which are required for Emergency Vehicle Access (EVA) purpose, a minimum clear width of 6m, which may include adjacent footways or verges, is required to allow fire service appliances to operate.

Table 2 : Minimum Carriageway Widths for Private Streets and Access Roads
(Buildings Ordinance)

[ Table Summary ]

Road Type
Residential
Industrial/Mixed Usage
Major Private Street
7.3m
10.5m
Minor Private Street
5.5m
7.3m
Cul-de-sac
5.0m
7.3m
Access Road
5.0m
Not Applicable
Access Road with passing bay
2.75m
Not Applicable

 

3.2.6 The minimum standard for industrial access roads is illustrated in Figure 6. The minimum width of carriageway for the roads giving principal access to industrial premises is 13.5m. The minimum width of footpath on either side is 3.5m. Hence, the overall width of the standard road is 20.5m.

3.2.7 The minimum width of carriageway for roads giving secondary access to industrial premises is 7.3m for 1-way traffic and 10.3m for 2-way traffic. The minimum width of footpath on either side is 3.5m. Hence, the overall road widths of secondary access roads are 14.3m for 1-way traffic and 17.3m for 2-way traffic.

3.2.8 Fire escape and rear service roads in industrial areas should be at least 9m wide.

3.2.9 Central reserve widths on urban roads will vary according to particular circumstances and will be influenced by street furniture requirements. Table 3 provides guidance as to the minimum widths for central reserves for urban roads with barrier fences or similar.

Table 3 : Minimum Widths of Central Reserves for Urban Roads

[ Table Summary ]

Road Type Reserve Width
Expressway 2.3m
Trunk Road 2.3m
Primary Distributor Road 2.3m
District/Local Distributor Road 1.8m

3.2.10 Where planting is to be incorporated along central reserves, widths shown in Table 3 will need to be increased. Requirements for planting adjacent to carriageways are given in the TPDM Volume 2 Chapter 5.

3.2.11 On trunk roads and primary distributor roads a 2m verge in addition to a 1m marginal strip should normally be provided. However on elevated primary distributor roads the verge may be omitted, but the 1m marginal strip must always be provided.

3.2.12 The desirable gradient on expressways, trunk roads, primary distributors and bus routes should not exceed 4%. On other roads, the desirable gradient should not exceed 5%. Where topographical difficulties can influence considerably the economics of a road scheme, steeper gradients may be used, but should not exceed an absolute maximum of 8% for the former and 10% for the latter. This standard is applicable to both urban and rural roads.

3.3 Standards for Rural Roads

3.3.1 General design characteristics for the different road types may be described as follows :

(a) Expressways

  Dual carriageway roads with access only at widely spaced grade-separated junctions preferably at about 5km intervals. Closer spacing not less than 2km may be adopted depending on particular circumstances. A nearside hard shoulder should be provided throughout and stopping restrictions apply at all times. Pedestrian facilities should be completely segregated from vehicular traffic.

(b) Trunk Roads

  Dual carriageway roads with no direct frontage access and stopping restrictions applying at all times. At-grade junctions should normally be spaced at least 550m apart. Grade-separated junctions are preferred. When provided, junction centres should not be less than 1 km apart. Pedestrian facilities should not be provided adjacent to the carriageway and any crossing points must be grade-separated.

(c) Rural Roads A

  Dual or single carriageway roads with high capacity grade separated or at-grade junctions. Direct frontage access should be avoided where possible. Whether stopping restrictions need to be imposed will depend upon the particular site conditions, taking into account frontage development, traffic flow characteristics etc. Provision for on-street parking should not be made.

(d) Rural Roads B

  Dual or single carriageway roads, with at-grade junctions. Direct frontage access may be provided. The imposition of stopping restrictions will depend upon particular circumstances. It will not normally be appropriate to make provision for on-street parking.

(e) Feeder Roads

  Single carriageway roads with the design commensurate with the traffic flow likely to use it. Because of the generally narrow width of the road, local widening in the form of parking lay-bys (3m wide) will be necessary if on-street parking is required.

(f) Single Track Access Roads

  Single carriageway roads with suitably located passing bays, preferably at least 12m long plus nominal tapers of 1:3, where 2-way traffic volumes do not exceed 500 vehicles per day and there is little or no kerbside activity and no parking is provided.

3.3.2 Table 4 shows recommended widths for roads in rural areas.

Table 4 : Minimum Carriageway Widths in Rural Areas

[ Table Summary ]

Road Type Single Carriageway Dual Carriageway
Expressway and Trunk Road
-
7.3m (2-lane)
11.0m (3-lane)
14.6m (4-lane)
Rural Road A
7.3m (2-lane)
10.3m (2-lane)*
7.3m (2-lane)
-
Rural Road B
6.75m (2-lane)
10.3m (2-lane)*
7.3m (2-lane)
-
Feeder Road
6.0m ( 2-lane)
-
Single Track Access Road
3.5m (1-lane)
Widened to 6m at
passing bays
6.0m (2-lane)
-
   
* When the peak hour traffic volume (2-way) exceeds 1 600 vehicles but is less than 2 400 vehicles, a wider 2-lane single carriageway should be used. The use of a 3-lane single carriageway is not recommended for safety reasons.

3.3.3 Central reserve widths will be influenced by junction design and street furniture requirements but minimum reserve widths should be in accordance with Table 5.

Table 5 : Minimum Central Reserve Widths for Rural Roads

[ Table Summary ]

Road Type
Minimum Central Reserve Width
Expressway
3.2m
Trunk Road
3.2m
Rural Road A
1.8m
Rural Road B
1.8m

3.3.4 Planting in the central reserve would provide environmental benefits but should be viewed with caution because the high traffic speeds could introduce maintenance problems and create safety hazards. However, if planting is considered appropriate a central reserve width of at least 4m should be provided.

3.3.5 For trunk roads a verge of 2m in width should be provided in addition to a 1m marginal strip on the left hand side of the road. On rural A and B roads a verge width of 3m is desirable but this may be reduced to 2m and 1.6m respectively where necessary.

3.4 Standards for Service Roads

3.4.1 On roads where no direct frontage access is permitted, and the alternative of providing a rear access road system connecting adjacent buildings or properties to the principal road through a proper junction is found to be impracticable, a service road is provided. It usually runs adjacent to the principal road and is connected to it at selected points for providing access to the adjacent buildings or properties.

3.4.2 The verge between the main carriageway and the service road should generally be 2m or more in width and never less than 1.5m.

3.4.3 Table 6 indicates appropriate widths for service roads.

Table 6 : Carriageway Width of Service Roads

[ Table Summary ]

Carriageway Type
Cars/Light Goods Only
All Vehicles
One-Way
4.5m
5.5m
Two-Way
5.5m
6.75m
Industrial Fire Escape and Service Road
-
9.0m

3.4.4 For service roads less than 6m in width, an overall clear width of at least 6m, which may include adjacent footways or verges, must be provided to allow fire service appliances to operate in the event of an emergency.

3.5 Locational Factors

3.5.1 The alignment of a road is usually dictated by certain geometric design features such as horizontal and vertical curvature, sight-distance, gradients, super-elevation etc. which are correlated by design speed, which itself is related to the road hierarchy, extent of access control and type of junctions.

3.5.2 Considering the compactness of the Territory, the high density development in the urban areas and the severe terrain in most of the rural areas, some acceptable deviation from the standards may be necessary for practical and economic reasons. However, such deviation should be the exception rather than the rule.

3.5.3 Apart from the geometric design features, there are several other factors that need consideration in determining a suitable alignment. A transport facility could be elevated, at-grade or below grade in entirety or along sections of its alignment. Each of these positions would impose varying environmental, visual, physical and economic considerations that must be investigated, quantified when practicable and evaluated in the planning process.

3.5.4 The alignment of a transport facility should present the least obtrusive visual impact of the engineering features associated with the facility on areas of sensitive land use. Engineering features would include bulk cuts and fill that could scar a wooded hillside. Wherever possible, suitable landscaping should be incorporated to minimise obtrusive visual impact, in which case its cost should be a consideration. Visual impact is somewhat difficult to quantify. Hence, a suitably scaled qualitative assessment may be necessary.

3.5.5 All roads have potential to cause damage to the environment. Their location and alignment should be suitably selected so as to avoid potential environmental problems. Adequate protective measures should be provided, in particular for expressways, trunk roads and distributors, to satisfy the environmental guidelines to minimise pollution. In planning new strategic roads, consideration should be given to adopt measures (which may possibly include decking over the road or putting it underground) to reduce the potential environmental and visual impacts, subject to their technically feasibility and implications on capital costs, maintenance/operation cost, visual impact, traffic safety and other relevant factors. The built form of the road should also be subject to assessment of its visual impact to identify practical means, including landscaping, to protect or enhance visual amenity.

3.5.6 Consideration also needs to be given at the design stage to the traffic aids and street furniture requirements. It is necessary to ensure that there is adequate space to erect traffic signs, lighting columns, noise shielding elements and barrier fences in their proper positions without causing danger or obstruction by being too close to vehicular or pedestrian paths. It is also important to ensure a continuity and conformity of design in terms of the location, and type of street furniture used throughout a route. It may therefore be necessary to arrange consultation among interested parties to ensure this when the construction of a particular route is divided into several adjacent schemes.

3.5.7 Where a cul-de-sac is constructed adequate turning area must be provided at the end to enable vehicles to manoeuvre without causing damage to adjacent footways, street furniture, buildings or other structures.

3.5.8 Other locational factors that may require consideration in the planning process are marine clearances and tidal levels, wind exposure, physical constraints such as antiquated buildings, sites of scientific interest, reservoirs and water catchment areas, aerial and subterranean structures, and "fung shui". The last consideration is of significance because inadequate assessment at the planning stage could result in inordinate and costly delays during implementation.

3.6 Total Land Requirement for Roads

3.6.1 According to the zoning, a guide to the allowance which should be made for the provision of carriageways, footways, on-street parking and bus bays in urban areas is shown in Table 7.

Table 7 : Guide to the Percentage of Total Land Area Required for Access Purposes

[ Table Summary ]

Zone
Average %
Residential Zone 1
35%
Residential Zone 2
20%
Residential Zone 3
18%
Industrial
30%

3.6.2 The Planning Department, Lands Department, Highways Department, Civil Engineering and Development Department and other concerned departments should be consulted on the proposed alignments and land requirements of new roads to ensure that any conflict with other proposed land uses is avoided.


4. Public Transport Terminals


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4.1 Franchised Bus Facilities

  General

4.1.1 In terms of capacity per passenger car unit, franchised buses are the most efficient mode of road transport. Franchised bus services will continue to be a major passenger carrier and will play an important role in providing passengers with choices, particularly in feeding passengers to the railways and providing service to areas not accessible by railways.

4.1.2 In general, every bus route requires two terminal points which fall into three basic categories, namely :

(a) A service terminal point which is a simple turning only facility that gives access to a stacking area that may be in the form of an off-street lay-by for operation of 1 or 2 routes;

(b) A bus terminus which includes bus turning, stacking and passenger waiting facilities and accommodates a number of bus routes; and

(c) A public transport interchange which includes provision for buses, minibuses, taxis, kiss-and-ride and possibly park-and-ride facilities and a rail station.

4.1.3 For operational efficiency and passenger convenience and safety, all bus termini and public transport interchanges should be located off-street as far as possible. However, in some circumstances a service terminal point may be temporarily located on-street, provided it does not obstruct vehicular and pedestrian circulation and other essential kerbside activities.

4.1.4 The land requirement for a bus terminus or public transport interchange is determined by several factors which include the number of routes served and their peak frequency, volume of waiting passengers, spaces for bus stacking during off-peak/meal break periods, the mix of terminating and passing services, overtaking and internal vehicle and passenger circulation.

  Standards for Service Terminal Points

4.1.5 Service terminal points are usually provided where 1 or 2 bus routes are terminated and where the number of departure bays is unlikely to exceed four. A regulator's kiosk will be required at such terminal point.

  Standards for Bus Termini

4.1.6 Bus termini are usually provided in large residential developments and in localised commercial or industrial areas. Normally, a minimum of 4 departure bays are provided for operation of services and stacking of buses during off-peak/meal break periods. One of these bays should be sufficiently wide to permit overtaking a stationary vehicle. A regulator's kiosk and the other ancillary provisions would be required.

4.1.7 If bus-bus interchange is to be pursued at the bus termini, additional bays would be needed.

  Locational Factors

4.1.8 Bus terminal facilities should be centrally located so as to be conveniently accessible on foot to residential, commercial and industrial activities. Access to the existing and proposed road system should be convenient and the ingress and egress points so located as not to cause conflict with traffic circulation on the adjacent road system and to facilitate satisfactory internal circulation.

4.1.9 Where they form part of a public transport interchange, access would be physically separated but walking distances between modes should be minimal.

4.1.10 Bus terminal facilities may be located in multi-storey developments, preferably on the ground floor. As they have potential to cause air pollution and noise impacts on nearby sensitive uses, they should be so sited or designed as to minimise such impacts.

  Standards for Bus Bays

4.1.11 Bus bays are provided to enable buses to stop for boarding/alighting passengers without obstructing other traffic.

4.1.12 The provision of bus bays should be considered on rural roads, feeder roads, primary distributor roads and 2-lane, 2-directional single carriageway district and local distributor roads. Where bus bays are required, the carriageway width in Tables 1 and 4 should be increased by 3.25m. The length of bay for operation of one bus route would normally be 40m.

  Locational Factors

4.1.13 Bus bays are located at bus stops. The location of bus stops are determined by bus passenger demand and a need to minimise access time and maximise a potential catchment area. They are normally located 400m apart in urban areas. In rural areas a longer spacing may be acceptable.

4.1.14 Detailed guidance on the location and design of bus stops, bus bays and termini is provided in Chapter 2 of the TPDM Volume 9.

  Standards for Bus Depots

4.1.15 Bus depots are provided in accordance with Section 19 of the Public Bus Services Ordinance on a regional basis to facilitate the construction, repair and maintenance of buses and their parking when not in operation. The land requirement would be dependent on the size of fleet to be serviced. Because of the need to provide ramps and circulation areas, and the ramps must not have gradients exceeding 1 in 10, the preferred dimension for a multi-storey depot is that its width should be at least 80m; its length would depend on the number of buses to be serviced. Taking into account the dead space occupied by the ramps and circulation areas, the minimum size for a reasonably efficient multi-storey depot of regular shape is 8 000m2 to 10 000m2. Guidance on location and planning of bus depots is provided in Chapter 2 of the TPDM Volume 9.

  Locational Factors

4.1.16 Bus depots should be on level terrain with suitable vehicular access to the road system and centrally located in relation to bus terminal facilities to enable dead mileage to be minimised.

4.1.17 The siting of bus depots should take into account the environmental intrusion due to 24-hour operation of maintenance and repair activity and noise nuisance caused by buses travelling to and from the bus depot at late night and early morning.

4.2 Franchised Bus Facilities

  General

4.2.1 A policy of containment of public light bus operations restricts the extension of public light bus activity into new towns, limited access roads and areas where the nature of their operations could present traffic problems. The policy also encourages the gradual conversion of red minibuses into the regulated green minibuses.

4.2.2 Green minibus routes are normally introduced in areas where a public transport demand exists but is insufficient to financially sustain the operation of higher capacity modes of public transport. Also physical accessibility constraints or a demand for more frequent service makes minibus operation more attractive. Green minibuses could also be used to provide feeder services to railway stations.

  Standards

4.2.3 Minibus termini should preferably be located off-street in close proximity to existing or future centres of demand. If possible, they should be incorporated into public transport interchanges. On average a 3-bay terminus with each bay accommodating 3 vehicles should be adequate. The minimum land requirement is about 800m2.

4.2.4 Where off-street space is not available, on-street termini may be provided but they should preferably be physically segregated from other traffic in lay-bys with specific entry and exit points. The lay-bys should have a minimum length of 21m and should preferably be 6m wide to enable a stationary vehicle being overtaken within the lay-by and fire service vehicles to operate within the lay-by in an emergency.

4.2.5 Where on-street lay-bys are proposed, the carriageway widths should be increased as appropriate along the length of roadway where the lay-by is proposed.

  Locational Factors

4.2.6 Minibus termini should preferably be provided off-street. When on-street termini are to be provided, they should be located in side streets to avoid causing congestion on the main roads.

4.2.7 When green minibus termini are provided for interchange with other forms of public transport such as rail or ferry, their location should not affect the operation of franchised bus services. Specific provision for red minibuses should not normally be made at such locations. However, where franchised bus, green and red minibus termini are located in close proximity, they must be physically separated.

4.3 Taxi Stands

  Standards

4.3.1 Single or dual-bay taxi stands should be provided off-street at centres of heavy demand, preferably within large developments or public transport interchanges. Adequate covered provision should be available for queuing passengers.

4.3.2 About 500m2 would be required for a single bay stand holding up to 5 vehicles and inclusive of access and turnaround area. Double bays should be considered wherever feasible to facilitate passing through of taxis as required. The number of bays would depend on the scale and types of developments in the vicinity.

4.3.3 Outside of public or private developments, on-street single-bay taxi stands are acceptable if located on side streets where they would not obstruct traffic circulation. Preferably, they should be located within lay-bys with convenient access to entrances of developments.

4.3.4 Shelters should be provided for queuing passengers where necessary and as far as possible to protect passengers from inclement weather.

4.3.5 Additional openings should be provided at the railings of taxi stands located at popular places to facilitate multiple boarding.

4.3.6 In places where loading of luggage is common and space is not a problem, saw-tooth layout should be considered.

4.3.7 Dropped kerbs at taxi stands should be provided to facilitate wheel-chair users.

  Locational Factors

4.3.8 Taxi stands should be provided at ferry terminals, rail stations, major public transport interchanges, the airport, hospital, cultural, entertainment or retail centres, and in large housing developments and locations in proximity to cross harbour tunnels and cross-boundary points.

4.3.9 They should be located at convenient access to entrances of nearby developments, near pedestrianised areas, or at pedestrian desire lines but should avoid queuing vehicles obstructing other traffic.

4.3.10 At locations like the airport where heavy demand is anticipated, adequate area should be provided for stacking of taxis and provision of ancillary facilities such as toilets for taxi drivers.

4.3.11 On-street locations in business and commercial districts should be in close proximity to centres of demand.

4.4 Ferry Terminals

  Standards

4.4.1 A ferry terminal is the point of embarkation or disembarkation on a particular ferry route. Its size and design are related to the number of routes served, the type of vessels use, the frequency of service, the nature (passengers/freight or vehicles) and volume of patronage.

4.4.2 Facilities within a passenger ferry terminal should include segregated waiting areas for each deck on the pier and each route where applicable, passenger queuing areas, ticket offices (with storage areas for computers or electronic passenger display equipment, etc.), turnstiles, staff rooms and public toilets. Consideration should also be given for passengers with disabilities, refuse collection point, as well as freight transport. Works and maintenance areas should also be provided, where necessary.

4.4.3 Normally, the waiting area is designed to accommodate 1.5 boatloads of passengers (assuming 500-1 500 passengers per boat, depending on vessel types) at a minimum provision of 0.65m2 of waiting area per person. Due consideration should also be given to the passenger volume at weekends and public holidays, in particular for the outlying island services.

4.4.4 As interchange with other modes of land transport will normally be provided, terminals should be designed to avoid conflicting pedestrian and vehicular movements.

4.4.5 For vehicular ferry piers adequate vehicle waiting areas segregated from other traffic will need to be provided.

  Locational Factors

4.4.6 Ferry terminals should be located in proximity to residential, commercial or industrial developments which generate potential passenger movements.

4.4.7 Adequate interchange facilities with other types of public transport such as franchised buses, green minibuses, and taxis should be available within or adjacent to the ferry terminal. For piers designated for outlying island services, adequate general loading and unloading facilities should also be provided outside the piers. Dropped kerbs should be provided at loading and unloading points for goods vehicles and to cater for the need of passengers with disabilities.

4.4.8 The surrounding road network should have sufficient capacity for the anticipated volume of vehicular traffic generated, particularly in respect of vehicular ferries, and should have adequate footway and crossing facilities for pedestrian movements. With regard to the latter, provision of covered walkways linking adjacent areas to the ferry pier and grade-separated facilities should be provided as far as possible. Provision of travellators should be considered where justified.

4.4.9 Piers should be sited taking into account various factors such as exposure to wind, water currents, wave height and swell, depth of water, presence of any underwater utilities and the draft of vessels using the piers. They should be so sited as to avoid any conflict with sewage or drainage outfall and other marine activity, and to enable the proper disposal of waste and wastewater arising from the operation of the terminals.

4.5 Public Transport Interchanges

  General

4.5.1 In pursuing the government's objective of enhancing inter-modal co-ordination and having railway as the backbone of passenger transport, in the planning of new major land-use or transport developments the opportunity should be taken to plan for a network of high standard public transport interchanges. Public transport interchanges should be conveniently located and as far as possible provide a comfortable environment in order to encourage public transport ridership.

4.5.2 Major public transport interchanges should facilitate bus-bus or multi-modal interchange. They should normally be located at or near a mass rail carrier station. Accessibility will be the key to the planning and design of such public transport interchanges.

  Standards

4.5.3 The design requirements for public transport interchanges can generally be grouped into four categories:

(a) Layout design: such as number and size of bays and platforms for various modes, stacking space, swept path, space for operators' and other public transport interchange facilities, ingress/egress arrangement, headroom, pedestrian walkway, stair, lift and escalator provision etc. In planning for future public transport interchanges, the saw-tooth layouts which would provide the best environment to passengers and the most efficient use of bus bays and layover facilities should be pursued as far as possible, depending on site configuration or constraints. In general, the following guidelines can be adopted :

[ Table Summary ]

Types of Public
Transport Interchanges

Application to Sites
Traditional parallel bays A small site with only a limited number of bays
(e.g. 3 - 4)

Peripheral saw-tooth bus bay,
central stacking
(i) A site of minimum width of 60m. Otherwise, there will not be enough space for buses to maneuver.

(ii) Major pedestrian generator would be at the same level. An example is Tsing Yi where both MTR passengers and other passengers would be at podium or footbridge level. Another example is Mei Foo.

(iii) Any development above can be supported by large column spacing.

Central island passenger platform
(i) A site of minimum width of 60m.

(ii) Major pedestrian generator at a different level. An example is Tsuen Wan where very few passengers access the public interchanges at the same level.

For major interchanges along the railway line, it is preferable to have them integrated into the concourse of the railway stations or otherwise direct and convenient linkages should be provided.

(b) Environment considerations: such as lighting, ventilation, noise protection, etc. To provide better waiting environment, it is recommended that where possible for new public transport interchanges particularly those facilitating multi-modal interchanges, consideration should be given to air-condition the waiting areas depending on need. The illumination, noise level and other environmental effects arising therefrom should meet the requirements stipulated by Highways Department, Electrical and Mechanical Services Department, Environmental Protection Department and other relevant departments. Reference should also be made to EPD's Practice Note for Professional Persons for control of air pollution in semi-confined public transport interchange (ProPECC PN 1/98).

(c) Passenger and operators' facilities and security and safety installations: such as queue railing, toilets, seating facilities, ticket machine, public telephones, fire-fighting equipment, CCTV, regulators' office, etc. Subject to availability of space, it is recommended that these essential facilities should be provided at the public transport interchanges.

(d) Passenger information facilities: such as passenger information centre/kiosk, direction signs, route/destination display, departure time indicator, etc. To enhance passengers to transfer between modes, an efficient message display and directional signs or public announcement system which help channelise passengers to their required destinations should be provided.

4.5.4 Normally, a public transport interchange will comprise not less than 8 departure bays for operation of different public transport services. For public transport interchanges with parallel bays, two of the bays should be sufficiently wide enough to permit overtaking of a stationary vehicle. The actual size of the public transport interchange should be determined by the Transport Department.

4.5.5 Detailed guidelines for provision of public transport interchanges are given in Chapter 8 in the TPDM Volume 9.

  Locational Factors

4.5.6 Public transport interchanges are usually provided in town centres or other regional focal points where passengers interchange between services and modes. Preferably interchange between rail and other transport modes should be at the same level. However, if interchange between modes have to be at different levels, escalators and/or lifts should be provided for the convenience and efficiency of interchange passengers.

4.6 Cross-boundary Coach Termini/Stops

  General

4.6.1 Cross-boundary coach is one of the most popular cross-boundary transport services in Hong Kong. Termini/stops for cross-boundary coach should be planned at suitable locations to meet the growth of future demand. The proposed cross-boundary coach termini/stops should take into account the existing facilities nearby (e.g. considering possible alternatives such as upgrading the existing facilities) with a view to raising the standards of existing facilities.

4.6.2 As cross-boundary travellers usually carry luggage which could be bulky, attention should be paid in the planning of cross-boundary coach termini/stops to cater for their needs, including easily accessible locations, convenient modal change, and provision of dedicated loading/unloading bay(s) and essential ancillary facilities.

  Standards

4.6.3 Cross-boundary coach termini/stops should preferably be provided off-street and in public transport interchanges. Particular attention shall be paid to the internal design of a cross-boundary coach terminus/stop located in public transport interchange/public transport terminus. Adequate space should be planned for the provision of essential ancillary facilities including dedicated loading/unloading bay(s), segregation of inbound and outbound pedestrian traffic, pedestrian connection facilities, waiting/seating area, ticketing office/booth, coach information facilities, roof cover, toilets, etc. as far as possible with sufficient ventilation and lighting. The scale of these facilities should be subject to site conditions and operational needs whereas the design should be user-friendly.

4.6.4 Where off-street location is not available, on-street termini/stops could be considered provided that the locations (a) are safe; (b) facilitate operation without causing adverse impact on local traffic; and (c) have sufficient sheltered waiting and queuing space for cross-boundary passengers as far as site conditions allow. The other essential ancillary facilities mentioned in paragraph 4.6.3 above should be provided as far as possible, taking account of space constraint and operational needs.

4.6.5 Due consideration should be given to the design and provision of user-friendly pedestrian facilities which facilitates good connection of the cross-boundary termini/stops with the surrounding developments or other public transport facilities nearby.

4.6.6 TPDM which provides the relevant provision guidelines and requirements should be referred to when designing a cross-boundary coach terminus/stop, including its size and scale.

  Locational Factors

4.6.7 The cross-boundary coach termini/stops should preferably be located at places where they are near transportation hub, hotels, retail facilities, commercial developments and tourism spots. If demand warrants and the location is deemed suitable with appropriate design and relevant issues addressed, consideration may also be given to locate cross-boundary coach termini/stops in major residential areas to meet the cross-boundary travelling needs of Hong Kong residents.

4.6.8 Off-street locations for cross-boundary termini/stops in public transport interchange is more preferred to facilitate convenient and efficient interchange with other transport modes. Alternatively, locations of the termini/stops in close vicinity of other public transport facilities could also be contemplated. For example, locations next to rail stations may create synergy effect and hence could be considered.


5. Planning for Pedestrians


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5.1 Walking and Pedestrian Environment

5.1.1 Walking is part of our daily life and a basic human activity. As a mode of transport, it is also the environmental friendliest. Hong Kong's compact, mixed use development pattern is suited to walking as most people never live too far from essential services such as shops, schools, parks and various community facilities. Walking is manageable from distance point of view.

5.1.2 However, pedestrians often encounter problems including congestion, gradients, pedestrian/vehicular conflict, barriers, air and noise pollution as well as monotonous streetscape. In many cases, problems for pedestrian movement are a result of numerous competing interests for street space and a lack of overall co-ordination.

5.1.3 Notwithstanding, walking should be promoted as a regular mode of travel in the town planning and development process. Pedestrian environment should be conducive to walking and accessible by all persons. Pedestrian facilities/schemes should not be planned in isolation but need to be integrated with the surrounding land uses. More importantly, a comprehensive approach to pedestrian planning that balances the needs of different users of space should be adopted.

5.2 Broad Framework for Pedestrian Planning

(1) A Comprehensive and Integrated Approach

5.2.1 As a compact city with a high population density and efficient public transport, Hong Kong has opportunities to become a pedestrian-friendly city. As the public realm for people, streets/pedestrian areas should be an attractive and enjoyable place where people are able to walk, meet and take leisure in safety and comfort. The needs of pedestrians should be given priority in the pedestrian planning process. To achieve this, pedestrian planning should be an integral part of new development and redevelopment. Retrofitting pedestrian facilities in the existing urban areas should also be considered.

5.2.2 To improve the pedestrian environment, a comprehensive and integrated approach in pedestrian planning should be adopted throughout the development process from planning, design, implementation, management and maintenance. The comprehensive approach should integrate the land use, transport, land management, economic, social, community and environmental aspects.

(2) Strategy for Pedestrian Planning

5.2.3 To turn Hong Kong into a pedestrian-friendly city, a strategy for pedestrian planning comprising the following three components should be adopted :

(a) Promotion of pedestrian planning for railway catchment areas

  Railway will form the backbone of land use planning and the passenger public transport network. As almost 70% of population and 80% of jobs will be placed within the catchment area of railways, railway-walking should be promoted as an integrated mode of transport through better pedestrian planning within the catchment area. Future strategic developments should be located around rail stations to facilitate pedestrian planning.

(b) Strengthening of pedestrian planning for non-rail based public transport network

  The railway network should be complemented by the non-rail based public transport modes including franchised buses, public light buses, trams and ferries. Public transport interchanges should be co-located with rail stations to facilitate convenient modal interchange. Non-rail based public transport networks, particularly at key public transport interchange points, should be supported by good pedestrian planning.

(c) Development of pedestrian network at local level

  Well-designed pedestrian networks would promote walking and are the cornerstone of a pedestrian city. Well-planned and designed pedestrian network/facilities (including mechanised facilities) would bring people from the transport nodes to their destinations and facilitate walking within the locality. Pedestrian networks within large public and private residential estates or other developments and their linkages to transport nodes should also be promoted.

(3) Principles for Pedestrian Planning

5.2.4 To have better and more effective pedestrian planning, four guiding principles should be employed in the process :

(i) Linkage

  Pedestrian routes should be clear, direct and with signage for easy recognition. They should be free of barriers to users (including those requiring special needs) and take pedestrians directly to where they want to go. Mechanised pedestrian facilities such as escalators, lifts and travellators could be considered to enhance pedestrian linkages and overcome level differences.

(ii) Safety

  Pedestrian and vehicular conflict should be minimised. The design should enhance pedestrian safety and personal safety. Footways should be separated from vehicles and pedestrian facilities should be well-lit.

(iii) Accessibility and Comfort

  Accessible and properly designed pedestrian facilities as well as adequately wide footpaths with rationalized street furniture, landscaping, good air circulation and where possible, weather protection measures, should be provided.

(iv) Attractiveness and Vibrancy

  The pedestrian environment should be attractive, vibrant and identifiable. Suitable pedestrian areas could be used for a variety of activities such as outdoor performances, alfresco dining, flea markets to promote vibrancy of the general area.

(4) Planning and Development Concepts

5.2.5 In the planning and development process, the following concepts should be considered to improve pedestrian planning :

(i) Integration of Land Use with Major Pedestrian Generators/ Attractors

  This would include integrating developments of major pedestrian generator (rail station, ferry pier, public transport terminus) with major attractor (residential area, shopping centre, employment area, point of interests); putting activity nodes, generators and attractors within the neighbourhood or walking distance of 500m in early stage of land use planning or in an incremental approach for the existing urban area; and concentrating high density housing, employment and other land uses at or close to rail stations and other transport termini.

(ii) Pedestrian Connectivity in Land Use Planning

  Pedestrian connectivity should be incorporated in the land use planning process through better linkage of generators and attractors; provision of pedestrian spine, landscaped deck, walkway/subway system and open space; and planning of pedestrian network within large public and private residential estates as well as major developments.

(iii) Creation of a Vehicle-free Environment

  In land use planning, it is desirable to create a vehicle-free environment through developing piazza, providing sunken road in the district centre, locating major roads outside town centre, placing public transport interchange at the periphery of housing estate, using mega deck development concept and applying other segregation measures of pedestrians and vehicles.

(iv) Urban Redevelopment

  In existing areas with urban renewal potential, comprehensive pedestrian network and better pedestrian environment should be provided through opportunities for urban redevelopment and renewal.

(v) Area Enhancement

  For existing areas with limited scope for urban renewal, enhancement of existing linkages with various pedestrian generators and attractors should be implemented through area improvement plans, pedestrianisation, pedestrian priority areas and traffic regulatory and management measures.

(vi) Developments / Buildings Conducive to Pedestrian Planning

  At street level, future developments/buildings conducive to pedestrian planning should be encouraged. This would include dedication of part of building lot for pedestrian passage, pavement widening and public areas and also enhancement of pedestrian environment such as provision of canopies to protect pedestrians from inclement weather.

(vii) Vibrancy of Pedestrian Areas

  At local level, enhancement or introducing vibrancy of pedestrian areas would add value to pedestrian planning. This would include linking up pedestrian areas with activity nodes, creating special design themes and arranging outdoor activities in pedestrian areas, and also promotion of leisure walking.

5.3 Area Improvement Plan as a Tool for Integrated Improvement

5.3.1 Whilst it is easier to adopt the above guiding principles and development concepts for pedestrian planning in new development areas, there are more constraints in the existing urban areas. Integrated Area Improvement Plan (AIP) should be prepared to bring about an overall framework for improvement including pedestrian planning improvement to the existing congested urban areas.

5.3.2 AIP is basically a guiding plan which provides a framework for the comprehensive improvement of an area. It should recommend enhancement measures of short, medium and long term including land use restructuring and redevelopment proposals, urban design and environmental improvement proposals, traffic management proposals, pedestrian linkage improvement proposals, streetscape and landscape improvement proposals, proposals to sustain or increase the vibrancy and ambience within an area.

5.4 Guidelines on Planning for Pedestrian Facilities

5.4.1 Pedestrian facilities include integrated pedestrian network, pedestrian priority area, pedestrian precinct or mall/centre, pedestrianised street, traffic calming street, elevated or underground walkway system, mechanised facilities such as escalator and travellator, at grade signalised crossing, footpath and promenade, etc.

5.4.2 Pedestrian facilities should provide convenient and pleasant access to residential areas, employment centres as well as various transport and activity nodes. It is important that at the initial stage of planning, the needs of pedestrians are catered for and pedestrian facilities are planned as an integral part of the new development areas and in major redevelopment schemes within the existing built-up areas as appropriate.

5.4.3 Pedestrian facilities should be planned comprehensively to form an integrated network. The network could be provided three- dimensionally comprising grade-separated linkage by elevated walkway, subway, escalator, etc. The pedestrian facilities network near rail stations and major transport interchanges should cover a wide catchment area and to encourage use of the rail and public transport. To extend the normal walking distance of 500m from major residential area/activity centres, mechanised pedestrian facilities such as travellator could be provided where situation permits.

5.4.4 Pedestrian facilities should be user friendly and, as far as possible, incorporate universal design; avoid frequent change of levels; provide direct access to buildings and connected by ramps, escalator approaches or lifts at ground level. Natural and artificial surveillance should be provided where justified along subways and in the stairway of footbridges to enhance security. For walkways connecting to major residential area/activity centres with high pedestrian flow, they should preferably be covered to provide weather protection for pedestrians. Moreover, the walking distance for carrying goods along footway should preferably not exceed 100m.

5.5 Guidelines for Improvement of Pedestrian Environment

(1) Provision of Public Spaces

5.5.1 Public space including piazza, green corridor, pedestrian precinct, etc. could be planned as a vehicle-free environment to enhance the pedestrian connectivity between activity areas. Public spaces should be integrated with existing and intended pedestrian desire lines and circulation routes to facilitate pedestrian movement.

5.5.2 Design of public spaces should be attractive to pedestrians. Special streetscape design can give character to public spaces, and promote its identity, use and role. The choice of colour, pattern and materials for street furniture and paving, etc. are important considerations. Public spaces should have good visibility across/along streets, and have adequate shade and weather protection.

5.5.3 Local identity and sense of place should be created by the combination of pedestrian routes, activity spaces, careful use of materials in the public realm, and incorporation of landmark features and public art along pedestrian routes. District themes should be identified to enhance local identity and to reflect local history and contexts. Suitable local characteristics and elements (e.g. street markets, historic buildings, temples etc.) should be adopted/adapted into pedestrian themes and designs.

5.5.4 To increase the vibrancy of public spaces, they should be designed flexibly to accommodate a wide variety of activities for use by all persons. In prominent open spaces, outdoor performance venues, cafes or food stands and public conveniences may be provided to support longer stay. Piazza and square are potential spaces to promote public art in the city. Pedestrians would be exposed to more artwork, whilst the artwork would enhance the legibility of the urban environment.

(2) Pedestrian Precinct/Pedestrianisation

5.5.5 In existing urban areas, the scope for provision of public spaces is rather limited. To provide more punctuation space and better walking environment for pedestrians, consideration should be given to creating a pedestrian precinct in the existing urban areas where the volume of pedestrian flow along roads or sections of roads is high, vehicular through traffic can be diverted to alternative roads and where servicing activity can be controlled.

  Selection of Streets for Pedestrianisation

5.5.6 The objectives and criteria for selection of streets for pedestrianisation as shown in Table 8 should be used for guidance. To provide a pleasant environment, extensive planting in the pedestrian areas should also be considered as far as possible.

Table 8 : Objectives and Criteria for the Selection of Streets1 for Pedestrianisation2

General Guidelines

To provide pedestrians with a safe, healthier and more convenient street environment by giving more sympathetic consideration to pedestrians over vehicles.

[ Table Summary ]

Objective
Criteria
(1) To resolve or minimise conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles
(a) Observed conflicts which cannot be resolved and where alternative solutions (like widening of footpaths, subways and footbridges) are uneconomical and/or impracticable.
(2) To provide a better environment for pedestrians
(a) The street is amenable to attractive landscape and street finishes.

(b) The street, when pedestrianised, will complement the existing pedestrian flow network.
(3) To improve pedestrian flow and to provide a more favourable shopping environment for pedestrians without impeding servicing of buildings
(a) Existing/anticipated commercial development depends on attracting large number of customers.

(b) The street when pedestrianised will improve the shopping environment and may provide additional commercial opportunities.

(c) Pedestrianisation should enhance retail viability and not bring any reduction in trade.

(d) Adequate provision should be made for vehicular servicing to buildings in the pedestrianised street either by an alternative direct access or by providing a limited specific period for vehicular servicing from the pedestrianised street.

(e) Adequate measures should be undertaken to cater for traffic diverted as a result of the closure of the street to vehicular traffic.
(4) To increase open space provision and upgrade the quality of the environment in congested urban areas
(a) Open space is deficient in the locality.

(b) The street when pedestrianised will enhance the existing/proposed open space system.
   
1 Streets selected for pedestrianisation are mainly local roads. Primary distributor and district distributor roads may be considered if necessary and appropriate. Trunk roads will not be included.

2 Pedestrianisation is the permanent or temporary closure of all or parts of an existing vehicular street for the exclusive use of pedestrians. However, if these streets/roads are designated emergency vehicular access, such access must be preserved and provision must be made to facilitate access of emergency vehicles when required.

(3) Traffic Management Schemes

5.5.7 Apart from full pedestrianisation, other traffic management and improvement schemes can be considered to achieve pedestrian priority. Such measures include footpath widening by reducing traffic lanes, part-time pedestrianisation, traffic calming of a busy street by provision of special traffic management measures such as speed table or special road layout so as to achieve a better balance between pedestrians and vehicles in using road spaces.

5.5.8 Various layout, physical design and functional measures of street environment can be applied in different combinations to produce a more pedestrian friendly environment. Choice of traffic management measures depends on the environment to be created as well as the current and future use patterns. The Transport Planning and Design Manual can be referred to for more information on traffic management schemes.

5.6 Streetscape and Footpath

5.6.1 Street is the basic and most important element in pedestrian planning and pedestrian environment. Block structure should be well designed to allow permeable and legible pedestrian routes. A good street environment would enhance the linkage, safety, accessibility and comfort of pedestrians and reduce the need for vehicular journeys. Streetscape enhancement should be given due consideration in the pedestrian planning process. Careful choice of street furniture, landscaping, paving materials and other street treatments is essential to emphasize the various street functions.

5.6.2 Footpath can provide various functions to satisfy pedestrian needs and the street requirement. Footpath can be sub-divided into three zones, namely the Through Zone, Street Furniture and Greening Zone (SF&GZ), and the Building Frontage Zone. More in-depth examination on the functions, guidelines and standards of footpath are provided in Section 5.8.

  Street Furniture

5.6.3 Street furniture provides basic ingredients to enable the street to perform various functions. Basic street furniture may include traffic sign post, street name plate, street lamp, railing, seating, bus stops, fire hydrant, litter bin, signage, etc. Street furniture should preferably be provided within the designated SF&GZ and in a co-ordinated manner to avoid visual congestion and obstruction to the pedestrian movement. Well-designed street furniture can contribute to the character and local identity of a place or the street environment.

5.6.4 Street furniture, street-side artwork and different paving materials can be used to delineate different parts of the footpath and to channel pedestrian flows and sightlines. Certain streetscape elements, such as cable boxes, may be hidden amidst the planting or painted with pictures to lessen visual intrusion of the streetscape.

  Signage and Lighting

5.6.5 Provision of signage should be made in a co-ordinated approach to avoid clutter and confusion. Pedestrian signage, traffic sign and information boards should be erected at key junctions to provide clear direction to pedestrians. They should be legible and identifiable.

5.6.6 Signage could reinforce the identity and themes of the district/community. A vibrant mix of lighting and signage may even provide special characteristics and tourist highlights. Lighting and signage schemes should therefore correspond to local/district needs. For prime commercial, tourist and other high profile areas, comprehensive signage and pedestrian direction schemes should be provided to facilitate convenient navigation by pedestrians.

5.6.7 Adequate street lighting provides better visibility at night-time and is essential from safety point of view. However, in the provision of street lighting, it is necessary to minimise light pollution to the residential developments.

  Landscaping

5.6.8 Trees and landscaping provide a sense of nature and natural shading in the urban environment. They can also buffer traffic emissions and noise to sensitive uses. Since greening is an established policy to improve the urban environment, trees and planting should be incorporated into pedestrian areas.

5.6.9 Trees, shrubs and groundcovers in dedicated amenity strip or built-in planters and/or street trees in pits are preferred to potted plants. Planting strips separated completely from underground utilities are also desirable. Portable planters may be considered at locations where there are too many underground constraints and where small or medium size tree species are not possible.

  Street Surface

5.6.10 Different paving patterns and textures should be used to define different uses within the public realm. Special paving patterns and insets can be used to add character, indicate pedestrian orientation and important routes as well as highlight points of interest of the pedestrian environment.

  Weather Protection

5.6.11 On large building blocks, building canopies are encouraged to provide shade and weather protection. Where provision of building canopies are not feasible, stand-alone canopies may be considered to provide a continuous link and to achieve consistency in design. The length of covered links should reflect actual pedestrian flow characteristics and the actual distance between attractors and generators. Canopies should be located at least 3.3 m from ground level and in accordance with the requirements of Transport Planning and Design Manual to prevent impediment to pedestrian flows. They should generally not encroach over the SF&GZ as they would inhibit plant provision and growth.

  Active frontages along Shopping Streets

5.6.12 Commercial and retail activities with active frontages are encouraged at ground level of developments to increase ground-level transparency, vitality and reduce “dead frontage" In shopping streets, mixed-use development should be encouraged with active retail frontage at ground and first floor levels. Lobbies for office, residential or hotel use should be discouraged along primary retail facades.

5.7 Universal Access for All

5.7.1 The principles of universal design should be adhered to in planning the public space and street environment so that all people including the elderly and disabled persons can have full access to all public facilities. The needs of the disabled should be integrated into design solution at the outset.

  Footpaths

5.7.2 Footpaths should be well maintained and free from obstacles. Railings, kerbs or tactile warning strips should be placed at the edge of the footpath where appropriate as a warning for the visually impaired. Long, steep grades should have level areas and/or benches at intermittent distances to provide rest areas for the elderly and disabled. Steep ramps and steps should be provided with handrails.

  Street Furniture

5.7.3 Street furniture should have well defined bases for easy recognition by the blind. Spaces beneath footbridge ramps or stairway with low headroom, where it is not suitable for pedestrians to pass through, should be clearly defined and provided with landscaping features. High visual contrast should be used to maximise visibility for low-vision people.

  Pedestrian Facilities

5.7.4 Pedestrian crossings should be clearly marked with tactile warning strip for both the visually and physically impaired. Disabled crossing facilities including ramps or raised platforms, audible signals and obstruction-free routes should be provided. Ramps should be incorporated into pedestrian areas and footpaths/walkways where minor level change will occur, e.g. kerbs and piazzas.

5.7.5 Major grade changes in footpaths/walkways should be avoided unless they are part of a comprehensively planned network. Lifts and ramps should be considered as part of grade-separated walkway systems.

5.8 Provision of Desirable Footpath

(1) Functions of Footpath and Three-zone Concept

5.8.1 Footpath is the basic component in the pedestrian network. The normal form of a footpath is the footway adjacent to a carriageway and it provides at-grade separation between pedestrians and vehicular traffic.

5.8.2 Footpath should be of sufficient width and should be able to cater for the pedestrian needs and various street functions including: (i) facilitate walking to destinations and access to buildings; (ii) provide traffic aids/facilities (e.g. traffic light, street lamp, bus stop and road signs); (iii) satisfy street furniture requirements (e.g. post box and litter bin); (iv) enhance streetscape and walking environment (e.g. tree planting, seating, sculpture); and (v) accommodate utilities (underground and above-ground) where necessary.

5.8.3 To cater for its various functions, a three-zone concept should be adopted in planning for footpath. The concept comprises the “Through Zone" for pedestrian flow, “SF&GZ" for various street furniture, landscaping, etc. and “Building Frontage Zone" for area adjacent to building frontages. The prototype illustrating the three-zone concept is indicated in Figure 7.

  Through Zone

5.8.4 The Through Zone is the key space available for through movement. This zone should be free of obstructions and dedicated exclusively to pedestrian movement. It should be of sufficient width to cater for pedestrian flow at a satisfactory level of service (LOS) so that pedestrians can enjoy a comfortable walking environment without the need to spill-over onto other sub-zones or the carriageway. A satisfactory LOS would provide adequate space for pedestrians to select normal walking speeds and free bypassing of other pedestrians in a primarily unidirectional streams within a footpath. Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) 2000 can be referred to for details on LOS. LOS C is considered as an optimal level of service in the HCM.

5.8.5 In view of the public expectation for a better walking environment, the upper end of LOS C (23 pedestrians/minute/m as stated in the HCM) is recommended as the minimum acceptable standard to serve as a reference for the required width for Through Zone. Such LOS would offer an improvement, but at the same time provide a reasonable compromise for better pedestrian environment and the congested urban setting where space is at a premium.

5.8.6 In addition to catering for pedestrian flow, in deciding the width of the Through Zone, other functional requirements including urban design, air circulation and visual effects should be taken into account. Depending on the nature and intensity of the adjacent land use zones, a wider footpath width than that required under stated pedestrian flow level may be necessary. For lower density residential zone and industrial areas in particular, a wider footpath may be needed for better urban design and air circulation.

  Street Furniture and Greening Zone

5.8.7 The SF&GZ acts as a buffer between the Through Zone and the road and incorporates landscaping and a variety of street furniture to serve the various street functions. Pavement tree planting can improve the comfort of pedestrian environment with minimal impact to pedestrian space. In line with the greening policy, the allocation of space for pavement tree planting in street of substandard width should be considered favourably. Tree planting should be included to provide natural shading and improve the microclimate of the urban areas.

5.8.8 When situation permits, such as in the new development area, the zone can be sub-divided into two separate zones to allow for separate street furniture and planting strips. On the other hand, some street furniture such as signs, street lights and railings may be placed within the planting strip if necessary. The zone width may be further increased along streets with high vehicular traffic speeds and volumes so as to provide a more comfortable and safer walking environment.

  Building Frontage Zone

5.8.9 Building Frontage Zone is the area between the Through Zone and the edge of buildings. This zone accommodates cross movements into adjacent buildings, areas for browsing and shopping frontages, and provide pedestrians with the additional space when walking along building edge/dead areas.

(2) Guidelines on Footpath Width Provision

5.8.10 The minimum width standards for Through Zone, Street Furniture and Greening Zone as well as Building Frontage Zone of a footpath/walkway on public roads for various land uses is shown in Table 9. While a wider footpath is desirable to cater for various street functions, it is more appropriate to have a minimum width standard to provide a reasonable compromise for better pedestrian environment and the scarce land resources, particularly in the existing urban areas. The width shown in Table 9 should be flexibly applied to suit individual circumstance or design. In addition, it should be flexibly increased where practical to accommodate bus bays, urban design feature, etc.

5.8.11 To cater for basic pedestrian flow and barrier-free access by the disabled including wheelchair users, the minimum Through Zone width should be 2m wherever possible. The 2m width is considered sufficient to provide a reasonably good environment for two-way flow by pedestrians and wheelchair users, especially on streets with moderate to low pedestrian flow.

5.8.12 The minimum widths of footways along private streets and access roads that do not form part of the public road system are as indicated in the Building (Private Streets and Access Roads) Regulations.

5.8.13 Footways providing access to buildings generally, and particularly in Residential Zone 1, should have a minimum width of 3.5m. The minimum width should be increased to 6m if the access is also required to serve emergency vehicles.

  Underground utilities

5.8.14 In addition to catering for various street functions, the footpath should be of adequate width to allow reserves for underground utilities installations. In the existing urban areas, provision of footpath is subject to severe land constraints and the footpath should be widened to meet the required standard where opportunity arises.

5.8.15 To avoid interference with tree planting along the footpath, underground utilities should avoid encroaching onto the SF&GZ. However, utilities serving the following functions would normally be allowed below the SF&GZ by Highways Department :

(a) utility services, such as lighting cables or power/water supply, which are necessary for the proper functioning of facilities within the SF&GZ; and

Table 9: Recommended Minimum Width Standards for Footpath/Walkway

[ Simple Table Format ]

Land Use Type
Through Zone Width / Peak Pedestrian Volume
(Pedestrians per minute)
Street Furniture and Greening
Zone Width
Building Frontage
Zone Width
Commercial
Commercial / Residential
Residential Zone 1 and those

 

other areas near pedestrian generators such as cinemas, rail stations, some GIC facilities (e.g. schools), etc.
4.5m
Very high (Over 100)
1.5m (2)-(4)
0.5m for
dead areas
and increase
to 1m for shopping frontages
Residential Zone 1
3.5m
High (80-100)
Residential Zone 2
2.75m
Medium (60-80)
Residential Zone 3
2.0m
Low (Below 60)
Rural
2.0m
Very Low
Business
4.5m
Medium (80)
General Industrial Use (1)
4.5m
Medium
4m (3)-(4)
Special Industrial Use (1)
3.5m
Low to Medium
2m (2)-(4)
Rural Based Industrial Use
2.5m
Low
1.5m (2)-(4)

Notes:

  (1) For classification of industrial use, please refer to Chapter 5 of the HKPSG.

  (2) The SF&GZ width should be increased to 3m for planting of large trees or understorey planting along boulevards or main roads. The boulevard or main road should have one or more of the following characteristics :

- as major transport and pedestrian corridors in a district

-  clustering with major community and tourist attractions

- developing with line of high-grade offices, retail and hotel developments

- as important district retail street

- a road of wide scale (e.g. dual 2 or 3 lane carriageway)

  (3) If bus shelter exceeding 1m width is provided along the footpath corridor, additional width of up to 2m should be suitably allowed in the SF&GZ.

  (4) When street furniture exceeding normal object width of 1m (such as gateway and artwork) is required, the SF&GZ would need to be widened to cater for its provision.

 
(b) utility services crossing the SF&GZ from the carriageway to the Through Zone of the footpath.

Apart from the above functions, utilities would not be permitted under the SF&GZ and approval would only be granted by Highways Department under exceptional circumstances.

  Application of Footpath Standards

5.8.16 In view of different development opportunities and constraints between the new development area and the existing urban area, the application of footpath standards in the two areas should be different. For new development area and redevelopment area, the optimum width of footpaths should be formulated in a layout plan under a planning study and the footpath width standards should be flexibly applied. For the existing urban area, opportunities should be sought to increase the width of sub-standard footpaths to tie in with the footpath standards by suitable pedestrian schemes or building setback in area improvement plans/town plans for upgrading of pedestrian environment.

5.9 Implementation

5.9.1 Pedestrian planning is an essential component of transport and traffic planning. Planning for pedestrians should be incorporated in the planning and development process from planning, design, implementation, management and maintenance.

5.9.2 The subject of pedestrian planning should be included in development studies, statutory and departmental plans, area improvement plans, planning briefs, urban renewal schemes, planning applications, etc. to provide guidance for both public and private sectors to achieve an enhanced pedestrian environment.

5.9.3 In the existing built-up areas, area improvement plans should be prepared as a planning framework for improving the pedestrian environment. Traffic management and improvement schemes together with streetscape enhancement schemes could be implemented under the current mechanisms. Careful co-ordination of public and private resources and monitoring of various responsible agents would be important in implementation, management and maintenance of pedestrian planning projects and facilities.


6. Cycling

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6.1 General Objective

6.1.1 In Hong Kong cycling is essentially a recreational sport. However, in certain new development areas, it is also a supplementary transport mode that facilitates short-distance travel in an environmentally friendly manner. The Government supports the adoption of cycling as a more regular transport mode where the geographical and topographical circumstances and road safety conditions so permit.

6.1.2 In the planning of new towns and new development areas, adequate attention should be given to the provision of cycle tracks and related facilities for the dual purposes of recreation/tourism and for intra-district travel.

6.2 Cycle Tracks

6.2.1 Safety is of paramount importance. The choice of location for cycle tracks, the road surface conditions of such tracks and the traffic management measures in the precinct should be designed to support safe cycling.

6.2.2 Functional cycle tracks meant for short-distance intra-district travel should be connected to major residential developments, major transport interchanges, rail stations and other activity centres in the vicinity.

6.2.3 Recreational/tourism cycle routes should be provided along scenic spots and promenade areas if possible. These routes should preferably be connected to a "cycle park" along the route or to cycle tracks in the nearby new towns where cycling rental facility is available. The convenience of public transport connection to such cycle parks shall have a bearing on the choice of locations.

6.2.4 Wherever possible, cycle traffic should be segregated from other road users. Physical segregation in the form of kerb and/or railings should be provided to separate cycle traffic from pedestrians. Where it is not possible to segregate cyclist from other road users, appropriate measures shall be introduced to require cyclist to dismount before proceeding on the relevant road section which is shared between cyclist and other users.

6.2.5 Segregation could take the form of cycle tracks parallel to carriageways, or cycle paths totally separated from other vehicle routes. The arrangement would depend upon the overall system being planned, taking into consideration the estimated future demand and land availability and the attractiveness of the routes in terms of cyclists' preferences.

6.2.6 Care should be taken to avoid over-provision, as under-utilised cycle tracks/facilities may lead to undesirable uses.

6.3 Standards for Cycle Track

6.3.1 The width of segregated cycle tracks should be based on a capacity flow of 500 bicycles per metre width per hour for 1-way operation and 400 bicycles per metre width per hour for 2-way operation. The desirable and minimum widths for cycle tracks are shown in Table 10. For cycle track which operates in both directions, appropriate measures (e.g. centre-line marking) should be provided to channelise directional flow to improve traffic safety. Two-way cycle tracks should be at least 3.5m wide.

Table 10 : Cycle Track Widths

[ Table Summary ]

  Desirable Minimum
One-way 2.8m 2.0m
Two-way 4.0m 3.5m

6.3.2 Cycle tracks should be separated from adjacent carriageways by verges of at least 1.8m in width. Where this is impracticable, except for trunk roads, the width may be reduced to not less than 1m to allow a reasonable clearance. Where a cycle track crosses a carriageway, it should do so at right angles to the kerb.

6.3.3 Where cycle track is provided along a roadway, its gradient is normally dictated by the road alignment. At subways and footbridges, the desirable and normal maximum gradients should be 3% and 5% respectively. In exceptional circumstances, gradients of up to 10% may be accepted for a short distance. Where excessively long gradient is anticipated, consideration should be given to alternative route for the cycle track.

6.3.4 Horizontal radii should preferably be not less than 5m, but in difficult conditions, radii of 2m may be acceptable.

6.3.5 Cyclists on cycle tracks should have a clear view ahead for a distance of preferably 25m but not less than 15m. Attention should be paid to destrian/cycle crossing points to ensure that street furniture, including trees, will not obstruct the sight of pedestrians or cyclists.

6.3.6 Along popular recreational routes, areas should be designated at about 1km intervals en-route for the cyclist to rest, to visit places of interest or to enjoy scenic views, if required. Bicycle parking spaces should be provided in these areas. These resting areas should preferably be located near tourist and/or scenic vistas and other places of interest to the public.

6.4 Cycle Park

6.4.1 When a scenic cycle route is planned, consideration should be given subject to availability of land to provide in a nearby site a cycle park connectable with the cycle track and cycle rental facility. Such rental facility can also extend to both ends of the route to enable one way rental line. This kind of rental facility will of course be essentially a commercial initiative. 

6.5 Cycle Parking Areas

6.5.1 In areas where cycle tracks meant for short-distance intra-district travel are provided, cycle parking facilities should be provided to avoid illegal parking which may cause obstruction to other road users. In general, cycle parking shall be provided in major residential developments, activity centres, markets, public transport interchanges, rail stations and relevant GIC facilities. The requirement for cycle parking may vary depending on a number of factors including the type of development, the location of the development, the availability of cycle tracks in the area as well as the popularity of cycling in the area etc. While a comprehensive guideline may not be necessary, advice on the level of parking provision should be sought from the Transport Department.

6.5.2 Bicycle parking spaces shall be provided in the residential developments where proper cycle tracks with direct connection to rail stations are accessible. The following guidelines on the level of bicycle parking provision for these residential developments are recommended: 

(a) within a 0.5-2km radius of a rail station, 1 bicycle parking space for every 15 flats with flat size smaller than 70m2

(b) outside a 2km radius of a rail station, 1 bicycle parking space for every 30 flats with flat size smaller than 70m2.

6.5.3 A designated cycle parking area shall be provided at the rail stations where cycle tracks are provided at a rate of 30 bicycle parking spaces per 10 000 population within the 2-km radius of the station.

6.6 Standards for Cycle Parking Areas

6.6.1 Cycle parking areas shall be provided off road/cycle track to avoid obstruction to vehicular, pedestrian and cycle traffic. They shall be provided at open locations with full public view in order to deter theft. To encourage use of the designated parking areas and to discourage illegal parking, cycle parking areas shall be conveniently located close to the general destinations. For short and long term parking, these areas shall not be located more than 30m and 70m respectively away from these destinations.

6.6.2 Suitable fixed stands or cycle racks shall be provided in the parking area to support the cycle and to enable the cycle to be securely chained to these fixtures to deter theft. The layout of these stands or racks shall be designed to maximise the parking capacity available at the site. Further information on cycle parking is available in Volume 3 Chapter 6 of the TPDM.

6.6.3 Direction signs shall be provided where appropriate to inform cyclists of the direction to the nearby parking areas.

6.6.4 At the designated bicycle parking area at railway stations, signs shall be erected to inform cyclists of the terms and conditions of use of the bicycle parking area.


7. Parking


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7.1 General

7.1.1 Provision of parking spaces should be compatible with Government's overall transport policy as set out in the Introduction of this Chapter. As a general principle, parking should be provided at a level which will not unduly attract potential passengers to use private vehicles in preference to public transport. In particular, for developments which are close to railway stations and large public transport interchanges, lower parking standards should be adopted.

7.1.2 Optimum use should be made of existing parking facilities and the demand for such facilities should be carefully managed. In those situations where demand for facilities still exceeds supply consideration should be given to providing additional facilities provided that such provision would not be contrary to the Transport Strategy and that it would not overload the road system.

7.1.3 Other practical considerations which should be taken into account when determining the appropriate level of provision of parking facilities include:

(a) Availability of public transport services in the vicinity;

(b) Availability of public car parks in the vicinity;

(c) Proximity to and quality of pedestrian access linking railway stations and other major public transport interchanges;

(d) Traffic conditions of local road networks; and

(e) Parking demand and supply condition in the vicinity.

7.1.4 For any particular on-street location or off-street development, the consideration of all of the above factors and deciding on the appropriate level of provision of parking facilities will be the responsibility of Transport Department. If any other departments or agency wishes to appeal against the decision of the Transport Department, such an appeal will be determined by the Transport and Housing Bureau.

7.1.5 Volume 7 of the TPDM offers detailed advice on parking including relevant legislation and design considerations. Volume 6 Chapter 8 of the TPDM provides technical details and design on parking for drivers with disabilities.

7.2 Off-street Parking

7.2.1 Parking for all types of vehicles should preferably be provided off-street. The Parking Demand Model, enhanced in the Second Parking Demand Study and periodically updated by Transport Department, provides a forecast of future parking demand by district for the major vehicle classes of private car and goods vehicle. This information can help the decision making process regarding provision of parking facilities.

7.2.2 Off-street parking can be subdivided into "private parking", which services the particular requirements of the development in which it is located and is restricted to owners and authorised users; and "public parking", which is available to the general public and services the area around which the car park is located.

Private Parking

7.2.3 The standards for private parking are set out in detail in Table 11, at the end of this Chapter. They include the parking standards for residential developments, community facilities, commercial facilities and industrial and business developments. The standards in Table 11 also include requirements for loading and unloading facilities for each type of development. In residential developments, provision should be sufficient to match existing and forecast car ownership of residents, subject to road capacity considerations. For GIC, commercial and industrial and business development, provision should be adequate to fully meet the operational requirements and such visitor parking as deemed reasonable and thereby avoid the necessity for on-street parking and loading/unloading. While the standards should be followed as far as possible, flexibility may need to be exercised, taking account of the particular factors relevant to individual developments. To assist in the application of this flexible approach, more detailed guidelines are set out in the Statement of Intent in Table 11.

7.2.4 In determining the standards for private parking, it should be remembered that these parking spaces will need to serve the building throughout its whole life. Catering just for existing peaks or troughs in demand would be short-sighted and must be avoided. The forecast demand for parking spaces throughout the life of the building should form the basis for the assessment of provision.

  Public Parking

7.2.5 New multi-storey public car parks should normally be built by the private sector although in exceptional circumstances they may be developed through the public works programme, if there is a significant shortfall and private sector participation is not forthcoming. For better land utilisation, multi-storey public vehicle parks should normally be incorporated as part of a joint user development.

7.2.6 It is Government's policy to encourage the development of "park-and-ride" and "kiss-and-ride" facilities at suitably located rail stations and public transport interchanges, with a view to encouraging public transport ridership. Such locations would normally be outside of the busy urban areas and close to major transport routes providing good access to the intended catchment areas.

Electric Vehicle Charging Facilities

7.2.7 The Government has been actively promoting the wider use of electric vehicles (EVs) in Hong Kong, with a view to improving road side air quality, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and creating green business opportunities.  As EVs are driven by electric power, they need regular charging to stay in operation. At present, most EVs can be charged by standard charging facilities (i.e. home electric sockets with 220V, 13A power sources).  The setting up of standard charging facilities at car parks basically involves electrical wiring and installation of socket outlets.

7.2.8 The provision of sufficient charging facilities in both private and public parking is crucial to the adoption and use of EVs. The Government’s longer term target is that as far as private cars are concerned, 30% are EVs or hybrid by 2020. On the assumption that the ratio of electric private cars to charging points should be at least one to one, EV standard charging facilities should be provided, where appropriate, in at least 30% of car parking spaces for private car in the following types or a mix of the following types of new developments -

(a) car parks of residential developments;

(b) car parks of commercial facilities;

(c) car parks of industrial developments; and

(d) car parks of business developments.

7.2.9 To cater for future increase in the number of EVs, all car parking spaces of new developments as outlined in para. 7.2.8 (a) to (d) should be EV charging enabling, the technical requirements of which are specified in the relevant technical guidelines issued by the Electrical and Mechanical Services Department.

7.2.10 Requirements in para. 7.2.8 - 7.2.9 do not apply to on-street parking spaces or outdoor car parks (with or without shelter).

7.2.11 The installation of charging facilities and electrical wiring works should be done in compliance with relevant legislations (i.e. the Electricity Ordinance (Cap. 406) and regulations made thereunder) and guidelines issued by the Environment Bureau and the Electrical and Mechanical Services Department from time to time.

  Park-and-ride

7.2.12 To achieve a better co-ordinated public transport system and to promote the use of public transport, park-and-ride (PnR) facilities should be provided at suitable rail stations and major public transport interchanges in the New Territories and/or fringe of urban areas as far as practicable.This is to encourage motorists to switch to mass transport, thus alleviating traffic congestion problems along strategic route corridors and reducing parking demand in the inner urban areas. When assessing the choice of PnR site, it is important to make sure:

 
  • The facility is located close to the public transport node in order to enhance interchangability.

  • The facility is not located at a congested area since the facility may attract a large amount of traffic at peak hours.

  • The facility is convenient to drivers who live in the less accessible areas and need to use their car as a feeder to the rail system.

7.2.13 Park-and-ride facilities are usually provided and run by commercial operators or as part of the lease conditions.

  Cycle Parking Areas

7.2.14 It is Government policy to encourage, through the planning process, non-polluting travel. Where appropriate, cycling as a supplementary transport mode should be promoted in areas where proper cycle tracks are available. More information on the provision of cycle parking is provided in Section 6 of this Chapter.

  Coach Parking

7.2.15 Coach picking-up/setting-down bays should be provided at the airport, cruise terminals, transport interchanges, hotels and at or near major tourist attractions.

7.2.16 On-street/off-street picking-up/setting down bays should be provided where direct pleasant pedestrian linkages with nearby tourist attractions are available. Designation of such on-street coach facilities should be subject to local traffic condition and availability of public parking in the vicinity. 

7.2.17 Adequate signage shall be provided where appropriate to guide tourists to nearby destinations.

7.2.18 At or near major tourist attractions, dedicated coach parking facilities should be provided for serving as holding facilities for coaches waiting to pick up tour groups.

  LPG-powered Vehicle Parking

7.2.19 LPG-powered vehicles should best be parked in open areas or above ground multi-storey car parks served by natural ventilation.

7.2.20 LPG-powered vehicles can be parked also in underground car parks installed with effective and reliable forced ventilation systems. 

7.2.21 Maintenance of LPG-powered vehicles in car parks should be prohibited. While parking in the underground car parks, the LPG supply main valves on the fuel tanks of the vehicles should be kept closed as in accordance with their user manual.

7.2.22 LPG-powered vehicle should not be parked in small enclosed garages.

7.3 On-Street Parking

7.3.1 On-street parking should normally only be considered on local distributors and roads lower in the hierarchy. On such roads, on-street parking spaces may be provided where off-street facilities are inadequate to meet demand and where provision would not adversely affect the flow of traffic. On-street spaces should generally cater for short term parking needs and parking meters should be installed to encourage such usage.

7.3.2 Both parking and loading/unloading should be provided off-street as far as possible unless circumstances dictate that on-street facilities must be provided on local roads to suit the needs of developments or certain special users such as disabled drivers. An early decision is required on whether on-street parking and loading/unloading will be provided in order to determine the required width of road.

7.3.3 Where on-street parking spaces for buses, containers and heavy goods vehicles are required, they should be so sited as to avoid causing noise nuisance to residential areas.

7.4 Parking for Persons with Disabilities

7.4.1 Where opportunity arises, on-street parking spaces for persons with disabilities should be provided near the facilities that the persons with disabilities often visit and where off-street provision is proven inadequate in the vicinity. These facilities may include clinics, hospitals, banks, retail markets, post offices, community halls, etc..

7.4.2 Off-street parking requirements to facilitate use by persons with disabilities are given in the General Note (h) of Statement of Intent of Table 11.



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   Last revision date : February 2014