Select Bibliography


The following references are likely to be of assistance in developing the methodology for the current Study:

Abello, R.P., Bernaldez, F.G. and Galiano, E.F. (1986) Consensus and Contrast Components In Landscape Preference. Environment and Behaviour, 18.

Alexander, C. (1979) The Timeless Way of Building, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Alexander, C. (1977) A Pattern Language, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Alexander, C. (1975) The Oregon Experiment, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Amedeo, Douglas, David Pitt, and Ervin Zube (1989), Landscape Feature Classification as a Determinant of Perceived Scenic Value, Landscape Journal

Amir, S. and Gidalizon, E. (1990) Expert Based Method For The Evaluation Of Visual Absorption Capacity Of The Landscape. Journal of Environmental Management, 30.

Anderson, L.M., Mulligan, B.E., Goodman, L.S. and Regen, H.Z. (1983) Effects Of Sounds On Preferences For Outdoor Settings. Environment And Behaviour, 15.

Appleton, J. (1975) Landscape Evaluation: The Theoretical Vacuum. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, no 66.

Appleyard, Donald (1970), Styles and Methods of Structuring a City, Environment and Behavior, pp. 100-114.

Arthur, L., T. Daniel, and R. Boster (1977) Scenic Assessment: An Overview, Landscape Planning, Vol. 4, Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp. 109-129.

Arthur, L.M. (1977) Predicting Scenic Beauty Of Forest Environments: Some Empirical Tests. Forest Science, 23.

Bergin, J. and Price, C. (1994) The Travel Cost Method And Landscape Quality. Landscape Research, 19.

Bishop, I.D and Hulse, D.W. (1994) Prediction Of Scenic Beauty Using Mapped Data And Geographic Information Systems. Landscape and Urban Planning, 30.

Brabec, Elizabeth, and Kevin Kirby (1992), The Value of Nature and Scenery, Scenic America Technical Information Services, Vol. 1, No. 3.

Bourassa, Steven C. (1992), Public Welfare and the Economics of Landscape Aesthetics, Landscape and Urban Planning.

Brancher, D.M. (1969), Critique of K.D. Fines Landscape Evaluation. A Research Project in East Sussex, Regional Studies, Vol. 3, No. 1, Pergamon Press, pp. 91-92.

Briggs, D.J. and France, J. (1980) Landscape Evaluation: A Comparative Study. Journal of Environmental Management, 10.

Brush, R.O. and Shafer, E.L. (1975) Application of a Landscape-Preference Model to Land Management. In Landscape Assessment: Values, Perceptions and Resources (eds. Zube, E.H., Brush, R.O. and Fabos, J.G.), Halstead Press, Pennsylvania.

Brush, R.O. (1981) Landform And Scenic Preference: A Research Note. Landscape Planning, 8.

Buhyoff, G.J. and Riesenmann, M.F. (1979) Experimental Manipulation Of Dimensionality In Landscape Preference Judgements: A Quantitative Validation. Leisure Sciences, 2.

Buhyoff, G.J. and Wellman, J.D. (1980) The Specification Of A Non-Linear Psychophysical Function For Visual Landscape Dimensions. Journal of Leisure Research, 12.

Buhyoff, G.J., Miller, P.A., Roach, J.W., Zhou, D. and Fuller, L.G. (1994) An AI Methodology for Landscape Visual Assessments. AI Applications, 8.

Buhyoff, G.J., Miller, P.A., Hull, R.B. and Schlagel, D.H. (1995) Another Look At Expert Visual Assessment: Validity And Reliability. AI Applications, 9.

Calvin, J.S., Dearinger, J.A. and Curtin, M.E. (1972) An Attempt At Assessing Preferences For Natural Landscapes. Environment and Behaviour, 4.

Carls, E.G. (1974) The Effects Of People And Man-Induced Conditions On Preferences For Outdoor Recreational Landscapes. Journal of Leisure Research, 6.

Carlson, A.A. (1977), On the Possibility of Quantifying Scenic Beauty, Landscape Planning, Vol. 4, Amsterdam, pp. 131-172.

Carlson, Allen (1979), Appreciation and the Natural Environment, Journal of Aesthetics of Art Criticism, Vol. 37, No. 3.

Carlson, Allen (1993) On the Theoretical Vacuum in Landscape Assessment, Landscape Journal, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp.51-56.

Clay, G. (1994) Real Places: An Unconventional Guide to America's Generic Landscape, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Coeterier, J.F. (1996) Dominant Attributes in the Perception and Evaluation of the Dutch Landscape, Landscape and Urban Planning, pp. 27-44.

Cooper, A and Murray, R. (1992) A Structured Method Of Landscape Assessment And Countryside Management. Applied Geography, 12.

Countryside Agency and Scottish Natural Heritage (1999) Interim Landscape Character Assessment Guidance, UK Countryside Agency, Cheltenham

Countryside Commission (1987) Landscape Assessment : A Countryside Commission Approach, UK Countryside Commission, Cheltenham

Countryside Commission (1991) Assessment and Conservation of Landscape Character: The Warwickshire Landscapes Project Approach, UK Countryside Commission, Cheltenham

Countryside Commission (1993) Landscape Assessment Guidance, UK Countryside Commission, Cheltenham

Countryside Commission for Scotland (1992) Landscape Assessment: Principles and Practice, Countryside Commission for Scotland, Battleby, Perth

Craik, K.H. (1972) Psychological Factors In Landscape Appraisal. Environment and Behaviour, 4.

Craik, K. (1968) The Comprehension of the Everyday Physical Environment, Journal of AIP, pp. 29-36.

Craik, K.H. (1975), Individual Variations in Landscape Description, from Landscape Assessment: Values, Perception and Resources, Zube, et at.

Crofts, R.S. and Cooke, R.U. (1974) Landscape Evaluation: A Comparison Of Techniques. Occasional Papers, no 25, Department of Geography, University College London.

Crofts, R.S. (1975) The Landscape Component Approach To Landscape Evaluation. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, no 66.

Crowe, S. (1967) The Need for Landscape Planning in Towards a New Relationship of Man and Nature in Temperate Lands, IUCN

Cullen, G. (1961) Townscape, Architectural Press, London.

Daniel, T.C. and Vining, J. (1983) Methodological Issues in the Assessment of Landscape Quality. In Behaviour and the Natural Environment (eds. Altman, I. and Wohwill, J.),Chapter 2, Plenum Press.

Dearden, P. (1980) A Statistical Technique for the Evaluation of the Visual Quality of the Landscape for Land-use Planning Purposes. Journal of Environmental Management, 10.

Dearden, P. (1985) Philosophy, Theory, And Method In Landscape Evaluation. Canadian Geographer, 29.

Dunn, M.C. (1976) Landscape With Photographs: Testing The Preference Approach To Landscape Evaluation. Journal of Environmental Management, 4.

Eleftheriadis, N. and Tsalikidis, I. (1990) Coastal Pine Forest Landscapes: Modelling Scenic Beauty For Forest Management. Journal of Environmental Management, 30.

Fabos, G.J. (1979) Planning the Total Landscape: A Guide to Intelligent Land Use, Westview Press, Boulder

Fines, K.D. (1968), Landscape Evaluation: A Research Project in East Sussex, Regional Studies, Vol. 2, Pergamon Press, pp. 41-55.

Gosling, D and Maitland, B (1984) Concepts of Urban Design, Academy Editions, London

Government of the Republic of Ireland, Department of the Environment and Local Government (2000) Landscape and Landscape Assessment, Government of the Republic of Ireland, Dublin

Hackett, B (1971) Landscape Planning, An Introduction to Theory and Practice, Oriel Pres, Newcastle On Tyne

Hadrian, D.R., Bishop, I.D. and Mitcheltree, R. (1988) Automated Mapping Of Visual Impacts In Utility Corridors. Landscape and Urban Planning, 16.

Hamill, L. (1985) On The Persistence Of Error In Scholarly Communication: The Case Of Landscape Aesthetics. Canadian Geographer, 29.

Hammitt, W.E., Patterson, M.E. and Noe, F.P. (1994) Identifying And Predicting Visual Preference Of Southern Appalachian Forest Recreation Vistas. Landscape and Urban Planning, 29.

Hanna, K. (1999) GIS for Landscape Architects, ESRI Press, New York

Hampe, Gary D. (1988), The Influence of Sociocultural Factors Upon Scenic Preferences, in Noe, Francis P., and William E. Hammit, Visual Preference os Travelers Along the Blue Ridge Parkway, National Park Service Scientific Monograph Servies No. 18.

Higuchi, Tadahiko (1983), The Visual and Spatial Structures of Landscapes, Trans. by Charles S. Terry, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 1-85.

Hill, M, Briggs, J, Minto, P, Bagnall, D, Foley, K, Williams, A (2001) Guide to Best Practice in Seascape Assessment, Maritime Institute, Dublin

Hodgson, Ronald W. and Robert L. Thayer, Jr. (1980), Implied Human Influence Reduces Landscape Beauty, Landscape Planning, pp. 171-179.

Hull, R.B. and Revell, G.R.B. (1989) Issues In Sampling Landscapes For Visual Quality Assessments. Landscape and Urban Planning, 17.

Hull, R.B., IV and Stewart, W.P. (1992), Validity of Photo-based Scenic Beauty Judgements, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 12, pp. 101-114.

Ittleson, et al. (1974), Individual Development and the Environment, An Introduction to Environmental Psychology, Holt, Rinehart Winston, pp. 167-207.

Jackman, T (1986) Our National Landscapes: Strategies for Survival in Use, In Health and in Beauty, Sciences Information Publishing Centre, Wellington.

Jackson, J.B., Concluding with Landscapes, Discovering the Vernacular Landscape, Yale University Press, pp. 147-157.

Jacques, D.L. (1980) Landscape Appraisal: The Case for a Subjective Theory. Journal of Environmental Management, 10.

Kaplan, Robert (1966), Cultural Thought Patterns in Intercultural Education, Language and Learning: A Journal of Applied Linguistics, Volume XVI, Nos. 1 and 2, pp. 1-20.

Kaplan, Stephen (1979), Perception and Landscape: Conception and Misconception, presented at the National Conference on Applied Techniques for Analysis and Management of the Visual Resources, Incline Village, NV.

Kaplan, Rachel (1985), The Analysis of Perception Via Preference: A Strategy for Studying How the Environment is Experienced, Landscape Planning, pp. 161-176.

Kaplan, R. and J.F. Talbot (1988), Ethnicity and Preference for Natural Settings: A Review and Recent Findings, Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 15, pp. 107-117.

Kaplan, R., S. Kaplan and T. Brown (1989), Environmental Preference: A Comparison of Four Domains of Predictors, Environment and Behavior, Vol. 21, No. 5, pp. 509-530.

Kellomaki, Seppo, and Risto Savolainen, The Scenic Value of the Forest Landscape as Assessed in the Field and the Laboratory, Landscape Planning, Vol. 11, pp. 97-107.

Lambrick, G. and Bramhill, P. (1999) Hampshire Historic Landscape Assessment Final Report, Volumes 1 and 2. Oxford Archaeology Unit and Scott Wilson for Hampshire County Council.

Land Use Consultants (1971) A Planning Classification of Scottish Landscape Resources, Occasional paper no1, Vol 2, Countryside Commission for Scotland

Laurie, M (1975) An Introduction to Landscape Architecture, Elsevier, New York

Linton, D.L. (1968) The Assessment Of Scenery As A Natural Resource. Scottish Geographical Magazine, 84.

Lynch, K (1960) The Image of the City, MIT Harvard University Press, Cambridge Mass.

Marr, J.E. (1890), Scientific Study of Scenery, Metheun & Co., Ltd., London, pp.1-7.

Martinez-Falero, E. and Gonzalez-Alonso, S. (2001) Quantitative Techniques in Landscape Planning, CRC Press, Boca Raton.

McHarg, I. (1969) Design with Nature, Natural History Press, New York

McPhearson, E. Gregory (1992), Accounting for Benefits and Costs of Urban Greenspace, in Landscape and Urban Planning, pp. 41-51.

Meinig, D.W. (1970), The Beholding Eye, Ten Versions of the Same Scene, Landscape Architecture, pp. 100-114.

National Rivers Authority (1993) River Landscape Assessment: Methods and Procedures, Conservation Technical Handbook No.2, National Rivers Authority, Bristol

Orland, B., Weidemann, E., Larsen, L. and Radja, P. (1995) Exploring The Relationship Between Visual Complexity And Perceived Beauty. Imaging Systems Laboratory, Department of Landscape Architecture, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Palmer, J.F. (1983) Visual Quality and Visual Impact Assessment. In Social Impact Assessment Methods (eds. Finsterbusch, K., Llewellyn, L.G. and Wolf, C.P.), Sage Publications.

Palmer, James F. (1983), A Visual Character Approach to the Classification of Backcountry Trail Environments, Landscape Journal, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 2-12.

Patsfall, M.R., Feimer, N.R., Buhyoff, G.J. and Wellman, J.D. (1984) The Prediction Of Scenic Beauty From Landscape Content And Composition. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 4.

Price, C. (1978), The First Hurdle, Chapter 1, Landscape Economics, MacMillan, pp. 1-6.

Price, C. (1994) Appendix: Literature Review. Landscape Research, 19.

Price, G. (1993) Landscape Assessment for Indicative Forestry Strategies, Forestry Authority, Cambridge

Propst, D.B. and Buhyoff, G.J. (1980) Policy Capturing And Landscape Preference Quantification. Journal Of Environmental Management, 11.

Ramos, A. and Aguilo, M. (1988) The Landscape Of Water: Introduction. Landscape and Urban Planning, 16.

Ribe, Robert R. (1986), On the Possibility of Strong Versus Weak Quantification of Scenic Beauty--A Further Response to Carlson, Landscape Planning, pp. 421-429.

Ribe, Robert G. (1990), A General Model for Understanding the Perception of Scenic Beauty in Northern Hardwood Forests, Landscape Journal, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 86-101.

Schroeder, H.W. and Brown, T.C. (1983) Alternative Functional Forms For An Inventory-Based Landscape Perception Model. Journal of Leisure Research, 15.

Schroeder, H. and Daniel, T.C. (1981) Progress in Predicting the Perceived Scenic Beauty of Forest Landscapes. Forest Science, 27.

Scottish Natural Heritage (1996) Assessing the Natural Heritage Resource. A Guidance Note for Local Authorities from Scottish Natural Heritage, Scottish Natural Heritage, Edinburgh

Scottish Office, Scottish Development Department (1978) Design Briefing in Towns, Scottish Office, Edinburgh

Seddon, George (1979), The Genius Loci and Australian Landscape, Landscape Australia, Vol. 2, pp. 67-73.

Shafer, E.L., Hamilton, J.F. And Schmidt, E.A. (1969) Natural Landscape Preferences: A Predictive Model. Journal Of Leisure Research, 1.

Shafer, E.L. And Tooby, M. (1973) Landscape Preferences: An International Replication. Journal Of Leisure Research, 5.

Shafer, E.L. Jr., and R.O. Brush (1977), How to Measure Preferences for Photographs of Natural Landscapes, Landscape Planning, pp. 237-256.

Sheldon, James N., Identifying and Evaluating Scenic Areas, Protecting Scenic Lands of the Big Sur Coast, The Big Sur Land Trust, date unknown, pp. 5-15.

Shuttleworth, S. (1980a) The Use Of Photographs As An Environmental Presentation Medium In Landscape Studies. Journal Of Environmental Management, 11.

Shuttleworth, S. (1980b) The Evaluation Of Landscape Quality. Landscape Research, 5.

Smith, George P. and Griffin W. Fernandez (1991), The Price of Beauty: An Economic Approach to Aesthetic Nuisance, Harvard Environmental Law Review, Vol. 15:53, pp. 53-83.

Steinitz, Carl (1990), Toward a Sustainable Landscape with High Visual Preference and High Ecological Integrity: The Loop Road in Acadia National Park, U.S.A., Landscape and Urban Planning, pp. 213-250.

Steinitz, Carl (July 1993) GIS: A Personal Perspective -- Part 2, A Framework for Theory and Practice in Landscape Planning, GIS Europe,. pp. 42-45.

Steinitz, Carl (1993), Commentary On Unnatural Illusions, Landscape Journal, Vol.7, No. 2, p. 207.

Swaffield, S & Foster, R. (2000) Community Perceptions of Landscape Values In The High Country, D.O.C. Science Report December 2000.

Stilgoe, John R. (1984), Popular Photography, Scenery Values, and Visual Assessment, Landscape Journal, Vol. 3, No. 2

Tetlow, R.J. and S.R.J. Sheppard (1979), Visual Unit Analysis: A Descriptive Approach to Landscape Assessment, presented at the National Conference on Applied Techniques for Analysis and Management of the Visual Resource, Incline Village, NV, 1979.

Tips, W.E.J. (1984) A Review Of Landscape Evaluation In Belgium And Some Implications For Future Research. Journal Of Environmental Management, 18.

Thiel, Phillips (1961), A Sequence-Experience Notation for Architectural and Urban Spaces, Town Planning Review, pp. 33-52.

Treib, Marc (1995), Must Landscapes Mean?: Approaches to Significance in Recent Landscape Architecture, Landscape Journal, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 47-62.

Trent, R., E. Neumann, and A. Kvashny (1987), Presentation Mode and Question Format Artifacts in Visual Assessment Research, Landscape and Urban Planning, 14, pp. 225-235.

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service (1995), Landscape Aesthetics: A Handbook for Scenery Management, No. 701.

U.S.D.I. Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service, The Pinelands Scenic Study, Summary Report, date unknown.

Unwin, K.I. (1975) The Relationship Of Observer And Landscape In Landscape Evaluation. In Transactions Of The Institue Of British Geographers, No.66.

Wade, G. (1982) The Relationship Between Landscape Preference And Looking Time: A Methodological Investigation. Journal Of Leisure Research, 14.

Wherrett, J (1996) Visualisation Techniques For Landscape Evaluation Literature Review, Land Use Division, Macauley Land Use Research Institute (Scotland).

Whitmore, William, Edward Cook and Frederick Steiner (1995), Public Involvement in Visual Assessment: The Verde River Corridor Study, Landsape Journal, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 27-45.

Wood, Dennis (1998), Unnatural Illusions: Some Words About Visual Resource Management, in Landscape Journal pp. 192-205.

Yang, Byoung-E and Rachel Kaplan (1990), The Perception of Landscape Style: A Cross-Cultural Comparison, Landscape and Urban Planning, 19, pp. 251-262.

Yu, Kongjian (1995), Cultural Variations in Landscape Preference: Comparisons Among Chinese Sub-groups and Western Design Experts, Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 32, pp. 107-126.

Zube, EH, Brush RO, Fabos, JG (1975) Landscape Assessment: Values, Perceptions and Resources, Halsted Press, Stroudsburg.

Zube, Sell, Taylor (1982), Landscape Perception: Research Application, and Theory, Landscape Planning, Vol. 9, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1982, pp. 1-33.

Zube, E.H. and D.G. Pitt (1987), Cross-Cultural Perceptions of Scenic and Heritage Landscapes, Landscape Planning, 8, pp. 69-87.



The following are likely to be useful references on the development of the landscape and townscape of Hong Kong:

T N Chiu and C L So (1983) A Geography of Hong Kong, Oxford University Press, Oxford

David Dudgeon and Richard Corrlett (1994) Hills and Streams an Ecology of Hong Kong, Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong

Empson, H. (1992) Mapping Hong Kong A Historical Atlas, Government Information Services, Hong Kong

Friends of the Earth (1995) Lamma Island, Coastal Guide Series, Friends of the Earth, Hong Kong

Friends of the Earth (1997) Lantau Island, Coastal Guide Series, Friends of the Earth, Hong Kong

Friends of the Earth (1998) Hong Kong Island and Po Toi Island, Coastal Guide Series, Friends of the Earth, Hong Kong

Friends of the Earth (1999) The Sai Kung Peninsula, Coastal Guide Series, Friends of the Earth, Hong Kong

Grant, Charles J (1962) The Soils and Agriculture of Hong Kong, Government Printer, Hong Kong

Gutierrez, L and Portefaix, V (2000) Mapping HK, mapoffice, Hong Kong

Herklots, G.A.C. and A.M. Hughes (1951) The Hong Kong Countryside, South China Morning Post, Hong Kong

Ho, C.H. (ed) (1994) City of Victoria: A Selection of the Museum's Historical Photographs, Urban Council, Hong Kong

Hong Kong Government of the SAR, Civil Engineering Department, Geotechnical Engineering Office, (N/K) Geological Landscapes of Hong Kong (pamphlet)

Hong Kong Government of the SAR, Civil Engineering Department, Geotechnical Engineering Office, (N/K) The Astounding Beauty of a Barren Rock (pamphlet)

Stokes, E (1998) Across Hong Kong Island, Hong Kong Conservation Photography Foundation, Hong Kong

Stokes, E. (1999) Exploring Hong Kong's Countryside, HKTA, Hong Kong

Stokes, E (1995) Hong Kong's Wild Places, An Environmental Exploration, Oxford University Press, Oxford

Vittachi, N et al. (various) Over Hong Kong Volumes 1-5, Pacific Century Books, Hong Kong

Williams, M, et al. (1994) The Green Dragon: Hong Kong's Living Environment, Green Dragon Publishing, Hong Kong



The following key Government studies provide useful background on the current landscape and townscape condition and quality in Hong Kong:

Territorial Development Strategy Review

Final Technical Report On Territorial Development Strategy Review Part 2 The Study Process and Inputs for Strategy Formulation (1995)

Planning and Development Studies

Planning and Development Study on North East New Territories (ongoing)
Planning and Development Study on North West New Territories (ongoing)
South West New Territories Development Strategy Review (ongoing)
Study on South East New Territories Development Strategy Review (ongoing)
Planning and Development Study in Hong Kong Island South and Lamma Island (ongoing)
Metroplan (1991)
Metroplan Landscape Strategy for the Urban Fringe and Coastal Areas (1989)
The Stage II Study on Review of Metroplan and the related Kowloon Density Study Review (ongoing)

Development Statements

Central and East Kowloon Development Statement (1998)
Hong Kong Island West Development Statement (N/K)
South East Kowloon Development Statement (1993)
Tsuen Wan/Kwai Tsing Development Statement (1992)
West Kowloon Development Statement (1993)

Other Studies

Study on Sustainable Development for the 21st Century (SUSDEV) (ongoing)
Study to Analyse Broad Land Use Pattern of Hong Kong (2001)

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